grow. Applications of the data include investigations of specific atmospheric phenomena (like katabatic winds), climate monitoring, critical input for numerical weather prediction, and ground-based weather for aircraft landings. The network should be a core component for an Antarctic observing network.

Redundant, autonomous mobile sensors controlled by adaptive networks are well worth exploring for the Antarctic continent, while enhanced drifting buoys might be used in the sea ice zone and open ocean regions. Ground-based remote sensing involving radar, wind profilers, Doppler acoustic sounders, temperature profilers, cloud radars, and cloud LIDAR can improve upon data retrieved from current radiosondes. In addition, large numbers of simple dropsondes strategically released from high-altitude balloons could enhance data collection. Research aircraft are appropriate platforms for investigating atmospheric processes (e.g., cloud physics). In addition, it would be desirable to replace expensive, bulky, sensitive instrumentation maintained by expert technicians with simpler, more capable systems that can work in unmanned aircraft to routinely explore the behavior of the winds, temperature, moisture, and cloud fields in three dimensions.

Satellites over the Antarctic continent and Southern Ocean have great promise: radio occultation profiles from tracking the propagation of GPS signals through the atmosphere have proved useful over the Antarctic continent with all-weather capability and absolute calibration. Long-range planning for satellites is required. NASA’s Earth Observing System (the Terra and Aqua satellites) and the more recent Cloudsat and CALIPSO missions have proven their value to science, but there are no adequate follow-up plans for when these systems exceed their design lifetimes. Data obtained on the atmosphere must be integrated into a coherent framework to support modeling.


Ocean observations can use both Eulerian (moored) and Lagrangian (moving) platforms. Eulerian measurements performed at strategically chosen locations, such as within straits, choke points, and boundary currents, would prove valuable. Improved moored sensors capable of conductivity-temperature-depth oxygen, nitrate, fluorescence, and acoustics and of flow cytometry of colored dissolved organic matter will be helpful. Devices with passive sonic recording of whales would improve the tracking of whales. Near-surface ocean platforms are in danger of damage from icebergs. Alternative sampling strategies including instrumented animals (seabirds, seals, whales), gliders, and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can mitigate this problem.

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