(IOCCG) to work toward a sustained ocean color data collection program from U.S. and non-U.S. sensors (National Research Council, 2011a).

On land, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can be used to study permafrost at local scales, and monitoring stations could include microclimate information on soil temperature, water activity, carbon dioxide (CO2), and pulsed amplitude modulation fluorometry. In freshwater, an observing network would benefit from in situ sensors to measure carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, as well as dissolved CO2 sensors and dissolved oxygen sensors. An oxygen (O2) flux tower would provide important information. Inclusion of data from a network of terrestrial, aquatic, and glacial monitors could help define predictions of rates of land transformation and the resulting atmospheric and hydrologic feedbacks; these are important processes to follow as glaciers and permafrost melt, lakes overflow, or land is exposed.

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