Dr. Bromwich’s research interests include the climatic impacts of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; global and mesoscale model simulations of the polar regions; the precipitation behavior of high southern latitudes, Greenland, and the Arctic basin; and the influence of tropical ocean-atmosphere variability on the polar regions. He has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data and was previously a U.S. Representative of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Dr. Bromwich chaired the National Research Council’s Committee on the Design of the Martha Muse Award to Support the Advancement of Antarctic Researchers. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, the Royal Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. Dr. Bromwich earned his Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1979.

Thomas F. Budinger (NAE/IOM) is professor of the Graduate School at University of California, Berkeley; Senior Medical Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and Professor Emeritus at University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco Medical Center. He was the founding Chair of the Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He is currently Home Secretary of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Budinger received the M.S. degree in physical oceanography from the University of Washington, an M.D. in medicine from the University of Colorado, and a Ph.D. degree in medical physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He served as a U.S. Coast Guard Officer in the Arctic and Antarctic and was the Science Officer for the International Ice Patrol (1957-1960). Dr. Budinger’s medical science contributions are for research on aging and heart disease. He has served NRC study topics ranging from imaging to radiation and warfighter protection. He is coauthor of the text Ethics of Emerging Technologies: Scientific Facts and Moral Challenges. Recent awards include the Gold Medal from the American Roentgen Ray Society in 2009 and the Hal Anger Memorial Lectureship from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in 2010.

John E. Carlstrom (NAS) is the Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago with the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physic, the Astronomy and Astrophysics and Physics departments, and the Enrico Fermi Institute. He holds a joint position with the High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, Dr. Carlstrom leads the 10-m South Pole Submillimeter Telescope project. Dr. Carlstrom’s Degree Angular Scale Interferometer in Antarctica revealed the microwave background’s long-sought polarization. He has also led efforts to study imprints in the microwave background created by massive clusters of galaxies, and has done pioneering research on young solar systems. He has received NASA’s



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