Referred pain: Pain subjectively localized in one region although due to irritation in another. (17)

Self-efficacy: Beliefs that individuals hold about their capability to carry out actions in a way that will influence the events that affect their lives. (18)

Sensitization: An increased response of neurons to a variety of inputs following intense or noxious stimuli. (19)

REFERENCES

(1)  American Chronic Pain Association. 2011. Glossary. http://www.theacpa.org/30/Glossary.aspx (accessed June 9, 2011).

(2)  APS (American Pain Society). 2001. Definitions related to the use of opioids for the treatment of pain. http://www.ampainsoc.org/advocacy/opioids2.htm (accessed April 25, 2011).

(3)  IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain). 2011. Pain terms. http://www.iasp-pain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pain_Definitions&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=1728#Allodynia (accessed June 9, 2011).

(4)  NIAAA (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). 2011. Glossary. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh312/177-179.pdf (accessed April 25, 2011).

(5)  IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain). 2011. Pain terms. http://www.iasp-pain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pain_Definitions&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=1728#Analgesia (accessed June 9, 2011).

(6)  Gatchel, R. J., Y. B. Peng, M. L. Peters, P. N. Fuchs, and D. C. Turk. 2007. The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: Scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin 133(4):581-624.

(7)  Brown, B. T., R. Bonello, and H. Pollard. 2005. The biopsychosocial model and hypothyroidism. Chiropractic and Osteopathy 13(1):5.

(8)  American Chronic Pain Association. 2011. Glossary. http://www.theacpa.org/30/Glossary.aspx (accessed June 9, 2011).

(9)  (a) NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness). 2011. Treatment and services—cognitive-behavioral therapy. http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_Treatments_and_Supports&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7952 (accessed May 4, 2011).

(b) NACBT (National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists). 2011. Cognitive-behavioral therapy. http://www.nacbt.org/whatiscbt.htm (accessed May 4, 2011).

(10)  IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain). 2011. Pain terms. http://www.iasp-pain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pain_Definitions&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=1728#Hyperalgesia (accessed June 9, 2011).

(11)  Melzack, R. 2005. Evolution of the neuromatrix theory of pain. The Prithvi Raj Lecture: Presented at the Third World Congress of World Institute of Pain, Barcelona 2004. Pain Practice 5(2):85-94.

(12)  IASP (International Association for the Study of Pain). 2011. Pain terms. http://www.iasp-pain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Pain_Definitions&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=1728#Neuropathicpain (accessed June 9, 2011).

(13)  Loeser, J. D., and R. D. Treede. 2008. The Kyoto protocol of IASP basic pain terminology. Pain 137(3):473-477.

(14)  Katzung, B., A. Trevor, and S. Masters. 2009. Opiod analgesics & antagonists. In Basic and clinical pharmacology, 11th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.



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