patient-level barriers, 46–47

potential savings from improvements in, 100

system-level barriers, 45

Basic knowledge

biomarkers and biosignatures, 221–222

conclusion, 223

expanding, 220–223

opportunities in psychosocial research, 223

other promising basic research, 222–223

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, 147

Behavioral therapy, 132–133, 299

Beliefs, 42, 71, 277

about pain, 183, 185

Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, 78

Biofeedback, 132, 226

Biological changes, caused by pain, 31

Biological factors in pain, 24

Biomarkers and biosignatures, 220–222

Biomarkers Consortium, 247

“Biopsychosocial model,” 35, 42, 115, 127, 227, 277

education in, 183, 219–220

Blueprint for transforming pain prevention, care

education, and research, 14–17, 269–275

immediate goals, 272–273

near-term and enduring goals, 273–275

Brain, role in the causes and persistence of pain, 38–40

Brennan, F., et al., 34

Brief Pain Inventory, 237

Brigham and Women’s Pain Management Center, 161

British Pain Society, 219

Bureau of Health Professions, 210

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 80

C

Canada, public education campaign on low back pain, 186

Cancer patients, 314

disparities in prevalence and care for, 84

fear in, 43

Cardiovascular patients, 131

Care of people with pain, 113–177. See also Barriers to improving pain care

barriers to effective pain care, 153–157

blueprint for transforming, 14–17, 269–275

conclusion, 161

findings and recommendations, 161–165

issues in pain care practice, 137–152

models of pain care, 158–161, 227–228

outcomes-based, 298

overtreating, 299

potential savings from improvements in, 100

treatment modalities, 129–137

treatment overview, 115

Cartesian model, of mind-body separation, 35

Catastrophic injuries and diseases, x, 81. See also Pain catastrophizing

Causes of pain, 34–44

the brain’s role, 38–40

cognitive context, 42–44

the complexity of chronic pain, 34–36

emotional context, 40–42

genetic influences, 36–37

nerve pathways, 38

pain in childhood, 37

Center for Studying Health System Change, 148

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 12–13, 56, 99, 189, 253

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), 11–13, 82–83, 210, 249, 254

Minimum Data Set, 83

Centers of Excellence in Primary Care Education, 203

Central sensitization, 33

Cerebrovascular disease, 82

Certifying physicians, 198, 210

Challenges. See Education challenges; Research challenges

Children

causes and persistence of pain in, 37

disparities in prevalence and care for, 77–78, 192

Chiropractic spinal manipulation, 135, 208

Choice of a treatment approach, 124–127

environmental factors affecting, 125

individual-related factors affecting, 125

pain-related factors affecting, 125

Chronic fatigue syndrome, 75

Chronic pain, 1, 32–33, 278, 295

choice of a treatment approach for, 126–127

common sources of, 29

complexity of, 34–36, 300

as a disease in itself, 4, 26



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