tant issues for animal health, human occupational safety, and efficient use of these animals in studies.

Forecasting needs must be done in terms of not only species but also the important characteristics: age and sex. To emphasize the age aspect, in studying diseases of aging and processes of aging in rhesus monkeys, we must keep in mind that it takes 25 to 30 years to grow an aged rhesus monkey. That fact is sometimes lost in discussions of supply-and-demand issues. One cannot make short-term shifts in trajectories in managing the supply of nonhuman primates.

Deliberate action pertaining to identifying needs and careful management of primate resources along these lines constitutes refinement, in itself, and will enable achievement of research goals with fewer animals in the long run. It will also lead to financial economy in this endeavor.

Given the globalization of the effort in primate research, and the practicalities of the work, such as transportation of animals and biological materials, it is increasingly important that we consider local, national, and international policies and politics. The next presentations will address many of these points.

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