b. How do they interact with the other government bodies (neighborhood, city, county, state, and federal) and the private sector?

c. Is resilience considered during the city and county planning and prioritization processes?

d. What are examples of positive city and county leadership related to resilience to disasters? What are examples of challenges to increasing resilience faced by city and county governance?

3. State and Federal Governance:

a. How do the state and federal government contribute to the disaster resilience of communities?

b. What is the most important role of the state or federal government before, during, and after a disaster (besides sending money)?

c. What are the greatest barriers at the state and federal level to improving resilience to disasters?

4. General Governance Perspectives:

a. How do you emphasize, highlight, encourage, or promote the shared responsibility among governing bodies for increasing resilience (neighborhood, city, county, state, and federal; and from preparedness through response to recovery—full cycle)? What are the best approaches?

b. Once a “community” agrees to or adopts a goal of resilience, who sets “metrics” and determines appropriate roles for the different stakeholders sharing in the responsibilities?

c. What are the key connections between the private sector and the various governance bodies (neighborhood, city, county, state, and federal)?


Given the great needs and constrained resources available to recover from Katrina, government has had to do its work creatively, said Charles Allen, the director of the Office of Coastal and Environmental Affairs and an advisor to the mayor of New Orleans. Governments cannot do everything, but good things have happened in the community. Collaborations within government and public-private partnerships have been able to deliver on needs, despite an $80 million deficit in New Orleans.

In some cases, government also needs to support the work under way in communities without getting in the way of that work. As a former president of a neighborhood association in the Ninth Ward, he always appreciated government officials who would encourage and not block grassroots efforts. “They would try to support us every step of the way,” he said.

At the same time, grassroots organizations need to recognize that there is a role for government. “We used to get all sorts of complaints about trash collection. I said, ‘Board members, do you want to take on trash collection for the

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