•  It can be difficult for politicians to tell people who have lived in a location for decades that they cannot rebuild there. Politicians seek to manage risk, but they are subject to many constraints.

•  Despite the great needs for expenditures on national resilience, state and federal budget deficits and popular calls for reductions in government spending point toward greater constraints on budgets in the future.

Self-Sufficiency in Disasters

•  Many valuable responses to disasters are based on the initiative and resources of individuals and communities, not governments.

•  Individuals and communities could benefit by being more self-sufficient to achieve desired levels of resilience (as the Vietnamese community has exemplified). Because some areas cannot be completely evacuated, people may need to be prepared to live through disasters.

•  Despite the need for greater self-sufficiency, the resources of government are irreplaceable in many respects. Balance between nongovernmental and governmental solutions and between local and national solutions is important.

•  Government has a responsibility to protect vulnerable populations and communities and help them become less vulnerable and more self-sufficient.

•  Greater self-sufficiency may help free resources for people who need higher levels of outside care.

•  A community can be resilient yet contain many individuals who are not resilient.

Creating a Culture of Resilience

•  Government can help create a culture of resilience through education and the provision of appropriate resources.

•  Multiple ways exist in which government can provide preparedness information.

•  Education can benefit from the enhanced awareness of disasters made possible through modern communications.

•  Training teenagers to provide assistance during disasters is a valuable way of enhancing knowledge about resilience in young people. Teenagers also can help educate younger children about resilience in disasters, including in families that do not speak English at home.

•  Cultural change is possible. For example, the construction industry used to accept some loss of life as inevitable in its business but does not accept such losses today.

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