•  Promoting healthier communities through education and clinical access may help to raise the overall resilience of those communities before, during, and after a disaster.

Toward Better Public Policy

•  The question of who pays and who benefits from resilience is integral to improving public policy.

•  Disasters are more usefully interpreted in terms of responsibility, not in terms of victimhood—who is responsible for recovery and in what ways?

•  Even where entire communities need to be relocated, cultural traditions and community cohesiveness can remain intact.

The Future of Resilience

•  Although Katrina was one of the largest and most catastrophic events ever to hit the United States, resilience is also important for the smaller and more frequent disasters that will occur in the future.

•  In the future, many communities could be geographically far flung and linked by communication technologies. How will the nature of resilience to hazards and disasters change in such a world?

•  The rise of sea level and other effects of climate change could radically change the susceptibility of many communities to hazards. What planning for the possibility of such changes is occurring today?

•  A fundamental constraint in resilience is the inability to imagine every kind of disaster that could occur.

•  Uncertainties associated with the natural world inevitably bring uncertainties to planning for resilience.

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