5

Recommendations

This chapter describes the committee’s recommendations for preventive services necessary for women’s health and well-being that are not included in the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Grade A and B recommendations, Bright Futures, and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines, and that could supplement the current list of preventive services for women recommended under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). The committee’s recommendations regarding chronic diseases, sexual and reproductive health conditions, interpersonal and domestic violence, and well-woman visits follow.

The committee also provided interpretations for unclear USPSTF Grade A and B recommendations as described in Chapter 4; these are annotated in Table 5-1. Clarifying statements for osteoporosis screening and tobacco use have also been added. The rationale for including these two statements is presented in Appendix A.

DIABETES AND GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by either an absolute or a relative deficiency of insulin in various organ systems of the body. The inability of these organ systems to utilize glucose thus exposes all tissues of the body to chronic excess glucose in the bloodstream, or hyperglycemia (ADA, 2011a). DM has three main types: type 1, type 2, and gestational DM. Only about 5 percent of people with diabetes in the United States have type 1 diabetes, which results from the body’s failure to produce insulin (ADA, 2011a). Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for about



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5 Recommendations This chapter describes the committee’s recommendations for preventive services necessary for women’s health and well-being that are not included in the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Grade A and B recommendations, Bright Futures, and Advisory Committee on Immuniza- tion Practices (ACIP) guidelines, and that could supplement the current list of preventive services for women recommended under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). The committee’s recommendations regarding chronic diseases, sexual and reproductive health conditions, inter- personal and domestic violence, and well-woman visits follow. The committee also provided interpretations for unclear USPSTF Grade A and B recommendations as described in Chapter 4; these are annotated in Table 5-1. Clarifying statements for osteoporosis screening and tobacco use have also been added. The rationale for including these two statements is presented in Appendix A. DIABETES AND GESTATIONAL DIABETES Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by either an ab- solute or a relative deficiency of insulin in various organ systems of the body. The inability of these organ systems to utilize glucose thus exposes all tissues of the body to chronic excess glucose in the bloodstream, or hyperglycemia (ADA, 2011a). DM has three main types: type 1, type 2, and gestational DM. Only about 5 percent of people with diabetes in the United States have type 1 diabetes, which results from the body’s failure to produce insulin (ADA, 2011a). Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for about 79

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80 CLINICAL PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOR WOMEN TABLE 5-1 Grade A and B Recommendations with Committee Interpretations and Clarification Statements USPSTF IOM Committee Topic USPSTF Recommendation Grade Interpretation Alcohol misuse The USPSTF recommends screening B Annual screening counseling and behavioral counseling with approved interventions to reduce alcohol screening instrument. misuse by adults, including pregnant women, in primary care settings. Anemia The USPSTF recommends routine B Screening in each screening: screening for iron deficiency anemia trimester. pregnant women in asymptomatic pregnant women. Blood pressure The USPSTF recommends screening A Annual screening. screening for high blood pressure in adults aged 18 and older. BRCA screening, The USPSTF recommends that B Referral for counseling about women whose family history is genetic counseling associated with an increased risk and testing, if for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 appropriate. or BRCA2 genes be referred for genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing. Breast cancer The USPSTF recommends that B Medication provided preventive clinicians discuss chemoprevention if indicated. medication with women at high risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse effects of chemoprevention. Clinicians should inform patients of the potential benefits and harms of chemoprevention. Depression The USPSTF recommends screening B Annual depression screening: of adolescents (12–18 years of screening. adolescents age) for major depressive disorder when systems are in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal), and follow-up. Depression The USPSTF recommends screening B Annual depression screening: adults adults for depression when staff- screening. assisted depression care supports are in place to assure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up. Diabetes The USPSTF recommends screening B Annual screening. screening for type 2 diabetes in asymptomatic adults with sustained blood pressure (either treated or untreated) greater than 135/80 mm Hg.

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81 RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 5-1 Continued USPSTF IOM Committee Topic USPSTF Recommendation Grade Interpretation Human immuno- The USPSTF strongly recommends A Annual screening. deficiency virus that clinicians screen for HIV all HIV screening adolescents and adults at increased risk for HIV infection. Obesity screening The USPSTF recommends that B Annual screening. and counseling: clinicians screen all adult patients adults for obesity and offer intensive counseling and behavioral interventions to promote sustained weight loss for obese adults. Osteoporosis The USPSTF recommends that B Women with screening: women aged 65 and older be previous fractures women screened routinely for osteoporosis and women with and in younger women whose secondary causes fracture risk is equal to or greater of osteoporosis than that of a 65-year-old white are suggested to woman who has not additional risk. be included (see Appendix A). Tobacco use The USPSTF recommends that A Annual screening. counseling and clinicians ask all adults about Counseling and interventions: tobacco use and provide tobacco Food and Drug nonpregnant cessation interventions for those Administration adults who use tobacco products. (FDA)-approved and over-the-counter medications are suggested (see Appendix A). Tobacco use The USPSTF recommends that A Discussion at each counseling: clinicians ask all pregnant women prenatal visit. pregnant women about tobacco use and provide It is appropriate for augmented, pregnancy-tailored pregnant women counseling to those who smoke. who smoke to receive counseling that is tailored to their needs. Syphilis The USPSTF strongly recommends A Annual screening. screening: non- that clinicians screen persons at pregnant persons increased risk for syphilis infection. Syphilis The USPSTF recommends that A Screening at first screening: clinicians screen all pregnant prenatal visit, and as pregnant women women for syphilis infection. indicated if at high risk.

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82 CLINICAL PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOR WOMEN 90 to 95 percent of the cases of diabetes in the United States, results from the body’s inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin as well as its resistance to insulin, which means that the body does not use insulin ef- fectively (NIDDK, 2008). Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diabetes that arises or is diag- nosed in pregnancy, typically during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. It accounts for about 135,000 diabetic patients annually in the United States and occurs in approximately 2 to 10 percent of pregnant women (NIDDK, 2011). Although most women recover from GDM after giving birth, they have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future (Turok et al., 2003). Furthermore, their offspring are at significantly increased risk of being overweight and insulin resistant throughout child- hood (Boerschmann et al., 2010). Prevalence/Burden Almost 25.8 million Americans, or 8.3 percent of the population, have diabetes, which is widely recognized as one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States (CDC, 2011c). By 2050, it is estimated that the rate of adult diabetes in the United States will triple, from 1 in 10 now to 1 in 3 (Boyle et al., 2010). No striking gender difference in the rates of diabetes exist between men and women in the United States (ADA, 2011b). However, a gender difference in the burden of this disease does appear to exist. Narayan and colleagues (2003) found that women have a significantly higher estimated lifetime risk of developing diabetes than men (38.5 percent for females versus 32.8 percent for males born in 2000). The authors further estimated that women diagnosed with diabetes at age 40 years will lose 14.3 life- years and 22 quality-adjusted life years, whereas the length of life lost for men diagnosed with diabetes at the same age are 11.6 life-years and 18.6 quality-adjusted life-years, respectively. The consequences of diabetes appear to be more severe for women as well. In a study to assess whether trends in mortality rates among adults with diabetes had changed, Gregg and colleagues found that between the 1971 to 1986 and 1988 to 2000 survey periods for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the all-cause mortality rate for men with diabetes decreased by 18.2 deaths per 1,000 persons annually (from 42.6 to 24.4 deaths per 1,000 persons annually), whereas for diabetic women, the all-cause mortality rate more than doubled (from 8.3 to 18.2 deaths per 1,000 persons annually) (Gregg et al., 2007). Furthermore, recent data indicate that women with diabetes are at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Women with diabetes were found to be four to six times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease

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83 RECOMMENDATIONS than women who do not have diabetes (Rivellese et al., 2010). Women with diabetes are more than three times more likely to have a stroke as women without diabetes but no prior history of a cardiovascular event. In fact, women with diabetes have a stroke risk profile similar to that of non- diabetic women who have had a prior stroke (Ho et al., 2003). In addition to having one of the highest diabetes rates in the world (8.3 percent), the United States has the highest rates of GDM in the world, with as many as 2 to 10 percent of pregnancies being complicated by GDM each year (Danaei et al., 2011; NIDDK, 2011). This may be in part due to increased screening conducted in the United States. Although the incidence of preexisting diabetes in pregnancy has increased over the past decade, the incidence of GDM has remained relatively stable since the late 1990s because of better recognition of the disease and more aggressive intervention, according to a Southern California Kaiser Permanente study (Lawrence et al., 2008). This suggests that the complications of GDM for both mother and infant can be reduced even further by better detection and prevention and more aggressive management of this condition (Crowther et al., 2005; Langer et al., 2005). Many women who are first diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy are classified as having GDM. However, it is possible that many had pre- existing or pregestational type 2 diabetes. Indeed, the majority of women with GDM seem to have β-cell dysfunction that appears on a background of chronic insulin resistance already present before pregnancy (Buchanan, 2001). If a woman who has had GDM is not tested after delivery, the diabetes may have persisted and her next pregnancy may be incorrectly classified as recurrent GDM instead of preexisting diabetes. This distinction is impor- tant, because preexisting diabetes could be associated with more serious consequences for the fetus, including cardiac, neurological, and vascular anomalies, than diabetes that arises in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (Jenkins et al., 2007; Ornoy, 2005; Sivan et al., 2004). Cases of GDM increase with maternal age and occur 7 to 10 times more often among pregnant women age 24 and older than among women younger than 24 years old (Reece, 2010), suggesting that universal screen- ing may be the most effective in the latter group (Marquette et al., 1985). GDM is itself a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Women who have GDM during pregnancy have a seven-fold increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes after delivery, which persists for their lifetime (Reece et al., 2009). One large, population-based study of 659,000 women found that 20 percent of women with GDM progressed to type 2 diabetes within nine years of pregnancy (Feig et al., 2008). Furthermore, the children of women with a history of GDM are at an increased risk for obesity and diabetes compared to other children (Reece, 2010).

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84 CLINICAL PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOR WOMEN Diabetes care costs the United States an estimated $174 billion annually, including both indirect and direct costs (ADA, 2011a). The United States spends more than half (54 percent) of the global expenditure on diabetes care and is expected to still be doing so by 2030, when it will spend an estimated $264 billion annually (Zhang et al., 2010). Risk Factors for Diabetes The primary risk factors for type 1 diabetes are genetics and family history (ADA, 2011a), diseases of the pancreas (Buxbaum and Eloubeidi, 2010), and infections or illnesses (Hober and Sane, 2010). The number one risk factor for type 2 diabetes is obesity (Chan et al., 1994; Colditz et al., 1995). Besides obesity, other risk factors for developing type 2 diabe- tes include impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, ethnic background, high blood pressure, a history of gestational diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle, family history, polycystic ovary syndrome, and older age (ADA, 2011a). A number of risk factors have been consistently linked to the develop- ment of GDM during pregnancy, including a history of GDM in a prior pregnancy, previously having had a large for gestational age (LGA) infant, obesity, a strong immediate family history of type 2 diabetes or GDM and a history of unexplained fetal death (Mayo Clinic, 2011). Obesity Obesity is an excess amount of subcutaneous body fat in proportion to lean body mass. (CDC, 2010d). The most common measure of obesity is the body mass index (BMI). If BMI is 25 to 29.9, an individual is consid- ered overweight; a person is considered obese when his/her BMI, is greater than 30. The rapid increase in diabetes in recent decades has closely paralleled the increase in obesity and overweight in the general population (Wang et al., 2008). The United States currently has the highest obesity rate in the world, with more than 30 percent of adults, or 77 million, considered obese. By 2030, if the secular rate of increase continues, it is estimated that nearly 90 percent of Americans will be overweight and 51 percent will be obese (Wang et al., 2008). Obesity recently passed smoking as America’s greatest health threat, at least as measured by quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost (Jia and Lubetkin, 2010). Obesity-related diseases account for nearly 10 percent of all medical spending in the United States (Finkelstein et al., 2009). Greater weight means a higher risk of insulin resistance, because fat interferes with the body’s ability to use insulin.

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85 RECOMMENDATIONS Overall there are a variety of factors that play a role in obesity. This makes it a complex health issue to address. The risk factors for obesity in- clude overeating; lack of exercise; genetics; environment; and some diseases and drugs. However, experts have concluded that the two chief causes of obesity are a sedentary lifestyle and the overconsumption of high-calorie foods (Vainio and Bianchini, 2002). Thus, most obesity interventions are directed toward modifying these two lifestyle factors. The USPSTF recommends screening for type 2 diabetes only in asymp- tomatic adults with a sustained blood pressure of greater than 135/80 mm Hg and found insufficient evidence to support screening in asymptomatic adults with lower blood pressure levels. Bright Futures does not specifically address screening for diabetes. Existing Guidelines and Recommendations USPSTF Recommendations The USPSTF recommends screening for type 2 diabetes in asymptomatic adults with sustained blood pressure (either treated or untreated) greater than 135/80 mm Hg. Grade B Recommendation (USPSTF, 2008b). The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for type 2 diabetes in asymptom- atic adults with blood pressure of 135/80 mm Hg or lower. Grade I Statement (USPSTF, 2008b). The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine screening for gestational diabetes. Grade I Statement (USPSTF, 2008a). The USPSTF recommends that all clinicians screen all adult patients for obesity and offer intensive counseling and behavioral interventions to promote sustained weight loss for obese adults. Grade B Recommendation (USPSTF, 2003). The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend that physicians consider screening for diabetes and encourage aerobic exercise and diet to achieve weight loss and prevent the progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes (VA, 2010). Numerous health professional associations and other organi- zations recommend screening for diabetes as part of preventive care for women. The American Diabetes Association, for example, recommends

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86 CLINICAL PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOR WOMEN that physicians consider testing for diabetes in all adults who are over- weight and who have additional risk factors and all adults 45 years and older not exhibiting these conditions (Zinman et al., 2010). Guidelines for GDM Screening Little evidence indicates that screening for GDM improves health out- comes. For this reason, the USPSTF concluded that the evidence is insuffi- cient to recommend for or against routine screening for gestational diabetes. However, according to the USPSTF, “clinicians should discuss screening for GDM with their patients and make case-by-case decisions. Discussions should include information about the uncertainty of benefits and harms as well as the frequency of positive screening test results.” Women at increased risk include women who are obese, older than 25 years of age, have a fam- ily history of diabetes, have a history of previous GDM, or are of certain ethnic groups (Hispanic, American Indian, Asian, or African-American). There are no existing interventions to prevent GDM from occurring in pregnancy. However, some bodies have considered it important to screen pregnant women for GDM because these women are at increased risk for having infants with excessive birth weight and require operative delivery or infants with increased neonatal morbidity. The U.S. Indian Health Service (IHS), VA, and the DOD Clinical Man- agement Guideline for the Management of Pregnancy, for example, recom- mend routine screening of all pregnant women for GDM at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation (VA, 2009). While the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recognizes that more studies are needed to unequivocally support the benefit of universal screening for GDM, it also identifies that univer- sal screening for GDM at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation is recommended by many experts. The recommendation is based on consensus, disease- oriented evidence, expert opinion, and case series (Serlin and Lash, 2009). In support of the recommendation, AAFP also notes that most obstetric practices employ this strategy. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), in its Clinical Management Guidelines for Obstetrician-Gynecologists on gestational diabetes (ACOG, 2001), rec- ommends screening for GDM at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. Its recom- mendation is based on limited or inconsistent scientific evidence. Other organizations with guidelines include the National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health, the American Heart Association, the Endocrine Society, and the National Kidney Foundation.

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87 RECOMMENDATIONS Effective Interventions The value of early detection of diabetes, other than type 1 diabetes, remains controversial because of the lack of an established evidence base. Randomized trials have established the benefits of interventions to prevent or delay diabetes (Knowler et al., 2002; Tuomilehto et al., 2001) and to re- duce diabetes-related complications (UKPDS, 1998). However, no random- ized control trial has established the benefits of early detection of diabetes. Several major studies have demonstrated that delaying and/or aggressively managing diabetes can ameliorate many of its negative consequences for women and their children. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), an almost 10-year study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health found that maintaining blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible slowed the development and progression of the eye, kidney, and nerve damage caused by diabetes (Genuth, 2006). It also found that any sustained lowering of blood glucose was beneficial. The most significant side effect of intensive treatment in the DCCT was an increase in the risk for hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose, including episodes severe enough to require additional medical assistance (Genuth, 2006). The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), another intervention study, was designed to assess whether modest weight reduction through dietary changes and increased physical activity or treatment with oral diabetes medication could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Results from this study showed that participants who were pre-diabetic could sharply re- duce their risk of developing diabetes with a modest loss of weight through dietary changes and increased physical activity (The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, 2000). Taking oral diabetes medication could also reduce risk, although less dramatically. Since the conclusion of the DPP study, additional data analyses continue to provide important insights into the value of lifestyle changes in helping people prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications. One analysis found that DPP participants with specific genetic profiles had a significantly in- creased risk of developing diabetes and selective responses to specific inter- ventions (Florez et al., 2007). It is possible that subgroups of individuals will not respond well to standard interventions or that some responders may re- spond very well to a particular treatment on the basis of their genetic profile. Nutritional support and exercise also can have a significant impact on the incidence and severity of diabetes. The DPP found that just 30 minutes of moderate physical activity a day, coupled with a 5 to 10 percent reduc- tion in body weight, produced a 58 percent reduction in the incidence of diabetes (Knowler et al., 2002). The current evidence of the efficacy of obesity prevention and interven-

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88 CLINICAL PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOR WOMEN tions is based on a very small number of studies (Lemmens et al., 2008). Some studies showed a positive impact of the intervention on BMI or weight status, but there is too much heterogeneity in terms of study design, theoretical underpinning, and target population to be able to draw firm conclusions about which intervention approaches are more effective than others (Lemmens et al., 2008). More research is urgently needed to extend the body of evidence in this area of prevention. The only intervention for obesity that has been shown to have great benefit for preventing other complications of obesity is surgery (Valezi et al., 2010). Gastric bypass surgery has been shown to ameliorate diabetes (Gill et al., 2011) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (Pontiroli and Morabito, 2011). However, this is an invasive surgical intervention, and an estimated 5 percent or more of people have serious or life-threatening com- plications after gastric bypass surgery (Picot et al., 2009). Identified Gaps The primary gaps in preventive services not already addressed by the provisions set forth in the ACA (reviewed in this section) were screening for diabetes in all women and screening for gestational diabetes among pregnant women, especially those identified to be at high risk for developing gestational diabetes. The committee found insufficient evidence to support screening for diabetes in all women. The evidence provided to support a recommendation for gestational diabetes is based on current federal practice policy from IHS and the VA as well as current practice and clinical professional guidelines such as those set forth by AAFP and ACOG. Recommendation 5.1: The committee recommends for consideration as a preventive service for women: screening for gestational diabetes in pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and at the first prenatal visit for pregnant women identified to be at high risk for diabetes. CERVICAL CANCER Invasive cervical neoplasia is a low-prevalence cancer with a lengthy pre-invasive phase that is amenable to screening and early detection. Cur- rent USPSTF screening recommendations do not yet address the potential role of high-risk (oncogenic) human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test- ing within practice of screening for invasive cervical neoplasia (USPSTF, 2003a). High-risk HPV DNA testing detects the viral types most commonly associated with the development of cancer.

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89 RECOMMENDATIONS Persistent infection with 1 of 20 high-risk HPV types is the necessary precursor for the development of squamous cell carcinoma and adeno- carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Plummer et al., 2007; Walboomers et al., 1999; WHO, 2005). HPV infection is highly prevalent and is sexually acquired with the onset of sexual intercourse, typically resolving within 24 months (Insinga et al., 2007; Khan et al., 2005). Progression from per- sistent infection to precursor lesion (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 2 [CIN2] or CIN3) can be a lengthy process, with the 10-year risk for the development of these lesions (even for the highest-risk viral types) being approximately 17 per- cent (Khan et al., 2005). Even after precursor lesions, the risk of progres- sion to invasive disease is about 31 percent in 30 years (McCredie et al., 2008). On the basis of the current understanding of the natural history or HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis, it is recommended that adult women with a history of sexual activity undergo periodic screening as part of their routine preventive care. Prevalence/Burden In 2010, 12,200 cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed and 4,210 deaths were estimated to have occurred in the United States (CDC, 2007a), and the incidence of cervical cancer has been steadily decreasing in the United States and Western Europe since the introduction of formal and informal cytological screening programs in the 1950s. By 2007, the rate of mortality in the United States has decreased from 10.2 and 18 per 100,000 among White and non-White women, respectively, to 2.2 and 4.3 per 100,000 for White and African-American women, respectively (CDC, 1953; NCI, 2011a). Despite these tremendous gains, women with poor access to health care services and specifically women from commu- nities of color have lagged significantly behind and currently represent a disproportionate share of cervical cancer incidence and mortality (NCI, 2011b; Saslow et al., 2002). Although the annual incidence of death from cervical cancer is less than that of other cancers (ACS, 2010), the fact that these deaths are al- most entirely preventable through primary prevention, screening and early detection, treatment of precancerous lesions, and effective therapies for invasive disease, makes cervical cancer a high-impact public health priority. Because sexually acquired persistent high-risk HPV infection is the primary causal factor associated with the development of cervical cancer, regular screening of all adult women with a history of sexual activity has been the mainstay of prevention efforts (USPSTF, 2003a). Periodic exfoliative cervi- cal cytology-based screening (with or without high-risk HPV DNA testing) detects pre-invasive and early-stage disease, contributing to reductions in

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