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C Recent Institute of Medicine Reports Related to Personal Protective Equipment and Education Needs of the Workforce Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respirato- ry Diseases: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Personnel— Update 2010 (IOM, 2011) This report looked at the progress made since the Institute of Medi- cine report Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic (2008) and reiterated the importance of appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to ensure worker safety, including the use of respirators for health care personnel exposed to viral respiratory disease. The re- port’s recommendations called for further research on influenza transmission and respirator effectiveness and design (including the development of powered air-purifying respirators for health care per- sonnel) as well as additional research on strategies to promote a cul- ture of safety and encourage the use of PPE. Respiratory Protection for Healthcare Workers in the Workplace Against Novel H1N1 Influenza A: A Letter Report (IOM, 2009) This letter report recommended that health care workers use fit tested N95 respirators when in close contact with individuals who have H1N1 influenza A or similar illnesses to prevent further transmis- sion. This recommendation highlighted the responsibilities of both the employers and the workers in implementing effective and appro- priate use of PPE in accordance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations. A second recommendation called for ad- ditional research on influenza transmission, the current effectiveness of respirators, and improved respirator design. 53

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54 APPENDIX C Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers (IOM, 2008) This report concluded that the health care community is not prepared to use PPE effectively in the event of an influenza pandemic. Its rec- ommendations focused on three main areas for immediate action: (1) research on influenza transmission should be a priority; (2) a culture of worker safety, including correct use of PPE, should be promoted; and (3) PPE should be developed with the needs of the worker in mind. The committee noted that the ability of respirators to reduce the spread of the disease by protecting both the health care worker and the patient makes them an essential component of PPE policy in an influenza pandemic. The Personal Protective Technology Program at NIOSH (IOM and NRC, 2008) This report evaluated and affirmed the positive impact and value of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH’s) Personal Protective Technology Program in the im- provement of occupational safety and health and the reduction of workplace injuries and illnesses. The committee assessed NIOSH’s respirator certification program and recommended that this program continue to be enhanced. The committee also recommended that fur- ther research be done on the barriers (including human factors) to ef- fective use of PPE as well as ways to overcome them. Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade’s Occupational Safety and Health Personnel (IOM, 2000) This report concluded that changes in the demographics of the Amer- ican workforce and in the workplace can impede the implementation of health and safety programs in the workplace. These complicating factors will require the development and implementation of a more comprehensive curricula, multidisciplinary training opportunities, and new types of training programs. Its recommendations focus on improving overall educational and training opportunities for current and future occupational safety and health professionals, including occupational health nurses.

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55 APPENDIX C REFERENCES IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2000. Safe work in the 21st century: Educa- tion and training needs for the next decade’s occupational safety and health personnel. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ———. 2008. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: Personal protective equipment for healthcare workers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ———. 2009. Respiratory protection for healthcare workers in the workplace against novel H1N1 Influenza A: A letter report. Wash- ington, DC: The National Academies Press. ———. 2011. Preventing transmission of pandemic influenza and other viral respiratory diseases: Personal protective equipment for health- care personnel—Update 2010. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM and NRC (National Research Council). 2008. The personal protec- tive technology program at NIOSH. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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