B

Biographies of Committee
Members and Staff

L. David Montague (NAE) is an independent consultant and is retired president of the Missile Systems Division at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and a former officer of Lockheed Corporation. Mr. Montague has 50 years of experience in design, development, and program management of military weapon systems, particularly ballistic missiles, low-cost space launch vehicles, and ballistic missile defense systems. His experience includes the requirements, development, and policy issues of strategic forces and defense systems to protect against weapons of mass destruction. His expertise includes the definition, development, integration, and management of strategic and tactical standoff strike weapon systems, exo- and endoatmospheric defenses for engaging these classes of threats, and the technologies and capabilities for guidance and control, surveillance and threat detection, cueing and targeting of these systems. Mr. Montague is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and received that Institute’s Missile Systems Award in 1990. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, to include task forces for both the U.S. Army and Defense Science Board and 8 years on the Navy Strategic Systems Steering Task Group. He was a member of the American Physical Society study panel on boost-phase intercept systems for national missile defense (published April 2003), served 3 years on the Los Alamos Laboratory Senior Advisory Group, and was a member of NASA’s independent review group for constellation program management (2007). Mr. Montague is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board and its Committee on Conventional Prompt Global Strike Capability. Mr. Montague received his bachelor of mechanical engineering and master of engineering equivalent from Cornell University in 1956.



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B Biographies of Committee Members and Staff L. David Montague (NAE) is an independent consultant and is retired president of the Missile Systems Division at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and a former officer of Lockheed Corporation. Mr. Montague has 50 years of experi- ence in design, development, and program management of military weapon sys- tems, particularly ballistic missiles, low-cost space launch vehicles, and ballistic missile defense systems. His experience includes the requirements, development, and policy issues of strategic forces and defense systems to protect against weap- ons of mass destruction. His expertise includes the definition, development, inte- gration, and management of strategic and tactical standoff strike weapon systems, exo- and endoatmospheric defenses for engaging these classes of threats, and the technologies and capabilities for guidance and control, surveillance and threat detection, cueing and targeting of these systems. Mr. Montague is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and received that Institute’s Missile Systems Award in 1990. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, to include task forces for both the U.S. Army and Defense Science Board and 8 years on the Navy Strategic Systems Steering Task Group. He was a member of the American Physical Society study panel on boost-phase intercept systems for national missile defense (published April 2003), served 3 years on the Los Alamos Laboratory Senior Advisory Group, and was a member of NASA’s independent review group for constellation program management (2007). Mr. Montague is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board and its Committee on Conventional Prompt Global Strike Capability. Mr. Mon- tague received his bachelor of mechanical engineering and master of engineering equivalent from Cornell University in 1956. 179

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180 APPENDIX B Walter B. Slocombe is a partner at the law firm of Caplin & Drysdale and has served the U.S. government in numerous positions throughout his career. He served as Under Secretary of Defense for Policy from 1993 to 2000 and is former director of the DOD task force on Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). He has also served as senior advisor for national defense in the Coalition Provi- sional Authority for Iraq. In 2004, Mr. Slocombe was appointed by the President of the United States to the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. He is a member of the International Advisory Board of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces and a former member of the Strategic Air Command Technical Advisory Committee. Mr. Slocombe served on the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Committee on the Policy Consequences and Legal/Ethical Implications of Offensive Information Warfare and the Committee on Conventional Prompt Global Strike Capability. David K. Barton (NAE) is an independent consultant. He received an A.B. in physics from Harvard College in 1949 and began his career as an engineering aid for the U.S. Army Signal Corps at White Sands Proving Grounds in 1946. He served as radar engineer at White Sands from 1949 to 1953 and at Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, until 1955. In 1955, Mr. Barton joined the RCA Missile and Surface Radar Department in Moorestown, New Jersey, as system engineer. He was awarded the RCA David W. Sarnoff Award for Outstanding Achievement in Engineering in 1958. In 1963, Mr. Barton became a consulting scientist to Raytheon Company at its Equipment Division in Wayland, Massachusetts, and later to its Missile Systems Division in Bedford. He was vice president for engineering at ANRO Engineering Inc. until 1984. Mr. Barton has served as member of the NRC’s Air Force Studies Board, as chair of the Committee on the E-3A Radar, and as chair of the Committee on Advanced Airborne Surveillance Radar. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electri- cal and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and received its Centennial Medal in 1984 and its Third Millennium Medal in 2000. He was named the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Distinguished Microwave Lecturer in 1987-1988. His fields of research include radar systems, the propagation of radar waves, radar tracking and measurement, and radar guidance of missiles. He was a member of the American Physical Society study panel on boost-phase intercept systems for national missile defense. Mr. Barton serves on the NRC’s Panel on Survivability and Lethality Analysis. Melvin H. “Mel” Eisman is a senior cost analyst in the Management Science Department at the RAND Corporation. Prior to joining RAND in 1994, he worked at TRW Space and Defense Sector, Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division, Magnavox Advanced Products and Systems Company, General Dynamics, Naval Air Systems Command, and the Naval Aviation Logistics Center. At RAND, Mr.

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APPENDIX B 181 Eisman has generated system life-cycle cost estimates for analysis of alternative studies on future Air Force airborne tanker and electronic airborne attack options and participated in cost-effectiveness studies of (1) unmanned airborne systems platform/sensor force mix options for performing future Air Force missions, (2) countermeasures and other security initiatives for improving passenger security at rail stations and airports, (3) space-based and airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems force mix options, (4) Air Force distributed small satellites over larger monolithic satellites, and (5) reusable launch vehicle options for supporting future Air Force space missions. In addition, he has recently been involved in assessing the utility of value models developed for DARPA’s System F6 Fractionated Spacecraft Program within a DOD acquisition context; causal factors for improving military space acquisitions in delivering capabilities within cost and schedule; and performing independent program cost and risk assess- ments on one of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s upcoming Earth-orbiting satel- lite missions. He is currently the RAND representative to the Air Force/NASA Space Systems Cost Analysis Group and a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Mr. Eisman received an M.S. in industrial engineering from Pennsylvania State University. David L. Fried has been an independent consultant since 1995. From 1993 to 1995 he was a professor of physics at the Naval Postgraduate School. Before that, from 1970 (when he founded the company) until 1993 (when he sold the com- pany), Dr. Fried was the president of the Optical Sciences Company, and prior to that, from 1961 to 1970, he was employed by Rockwell International, where he held the position of manager in the Electro-Optical Laboratory of the Autonetics Division. Dr. Fried served for 20 years on the U.S. Army Science Board (ASB). For many years, he served on the ASB’s standing committee on ballistic missile defense. In the 1960s, Dr. Fried published a series of papers on the optical ef- fects of atmospheric turbulence that provided much of the analytic foundations for the development of adaptive optics systems and that resulted in the definition of the quantity now known as Fried’s parameter. In 1981, Dr. Fried carried out the first analysis evaluating and establishing the feasibility of the use of atmo- spheric laser backscatter to control adaptive optics—a concept that now goes by the name of laser guide-star. He then designed, managed the development of the hardware for, and supervised an experiment that successfully demonstrated the validity of the laser guide-star concept. In 1993, he received the SPIE Technology Achievement Award for his initial laser guide-star work. In addition to his work related to optical propagation/turbulence effects/adaptive optics, Dr. Fried has done work in a variety of other electro-optics-related fields such as the suppres- sion of infrared background clutter in moving target detection systems; analysis of laser speckle statistics; analysis of the effect of photo-detection-event driven shot noise on the precision of various types of optical measurements; the design and development of low-temperature-optics long-wavelength infrared sensors

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182 APPENDIX B for use in midcourse ballistic missile defense; and in the design and performance analysis for space-based infrared sensors for missile and aircraft detection. He has also been involved in the search for a sound approach to the midcourse decoy discrimination problem for ballistic missile defense. Dr. Fried received a Ph.D. in physics from Rutgers University. Alec D. Gallimore is Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan, where he directs the Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory. Dr. Gallimore is also an associate dean at the ­ orace H. H Rackham School of Graduate Studies, where he serves as the school’s liaison to 25 graduate programs and departments in engineering, the physical sciences, and mathematics. Professor Gallimore is also on the faculty of the applied ­ hysics p program at Michigan, is the director of the NASA-funded ­ ichigan Space Grant M Consortium, and is project director of the National Science Foundation (NSF)- funded Michigan Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professorate. He re- ceived his Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from Princeton University. His primary research interests include electric propulsion, plasma diagnostics, space/reentry plasma simulation, use of plasma for energy production and environmental reme- diation, and nanoparticle physics. He has experience with a wide array of electric propulsion technologies including Hall thrusters, ion thrusters, arcjets, radio frequency plasma sources, 100-kilowatt-class steady magneto­ lasma­ ynamic p d (MPD) thrusters, and megawatt-level quasi-steady MPD thrusters. Professor G ­ allimore has implemented a variety of probe, microwave, and optical/laser plasma diagnostics. He serves on the AIAA Electric Propulsion Technical Com- mittee and is a fellow of AIAA. Professor Gallimore is an associate editor for the Journal of Propulsion and Power and for the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force Journal of Propulsion and Energetics and has served on a number of advisory boards for NASA and DOD including the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisor Board (AFSAB). He was awarded the Decoration for Meritorious Civilian Ser- vice in 2005 for his work on the AFSAB. He is co-founder of ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc. (EDA), a high-tech aerospace firm in Ann Arbor, Michigan, that specializes in plasma device engineering. Professor Gallimore has served on numerous NRC committees, including the Committee on Future Air Force Needs for Survivability and the Committee on Conventional Prompt Global Strike Capability. Eugene E. Habiger, Gen, U.S. Air Force (ret.), is distinguished fellow and policy advisor at the University of Georgia Center for International Trade and Security. General Habiger retired as a general, serving as the Commander-in-Chief, United States Strategic Command, where he was responsible for all U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy strategic nuclear forces supporting the national security strategy of strategic deterrence. In this position, he established an unprecedented military- to-military relationship with his Russian counterparts, fostering extra­ rdinary o

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APPENDIX B 183 confidence building and openness. After his retirement from the U.S. Air Force General Habiger was appointed the U.S. Department of Energy’s director of security and emergency operations. He serves as a distinguished fellow and policy adviser with the University of Georgia Center for International Trade and Security, where he assisted with the Center’s international programs aimed at preventing weapons proliferation and reducing nuclear dangers. He has served as president and CEO of the San Antonio Water System and currently is on the Nuclear Threat Initiative’s board of directors. He also serves as a senior fellow at the Gorbachev Foundation. General Habiger served on the NRC’s Committee on Conventional Prompt Global Strike Capability. Harvey L. Lynch recently retired after serving as an assistant director in the Par- ticle Physics and Astrophysics directorate of the SLAC National Accelerator Lab- oratory (SLAC). He has over 40 years of experience in experimental high-energy particle physics (HEP). During that time he worked at laboratories in the United States, Germany, and Switzerland on experiments in the fundamental interactions of particles. One experiment resulted in the discovery of a new quark (charm), which launched a revolution in particle physics. He has been one of the leading members of the design team for three different HEP detectors, two at the SLAC in Menlo Park, California, and one at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. He was a deputy for detector technical liaison to the associ- ate director for physics research at the superconducting supercollider (SSC) in Dallas, Texas. In that role he had the responsibility of technical oversight for the design of two very large HEP detectors planned for the SSC. His experience in arms control/defense-related work includes a leave of absence in 1986 spent at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford, when he prepared the report Technical Evaluation of Offensive Uses of SDI, which looked at the use of laser beams from space as weapons against ground or airborne targets. In 1989, he was part of the team from the U.S. Natural Resources Defense Council work- ing with the Soviet Academy of Sciences for the joint “Black Sea Experiment” (on board a Soviet cruiser as part of a verification regime for submarine-launched cruise missile control by the passive detection of an onboard nuclear weapon by means of the radiation it emits). Most recently, he was a member of the American Physical Society team studying boost-phase missile interception. Kenneth C. Malley, VADM, U.S. Navy (ret.), is currently an independent con- sultant. Admiral Malley retired from the Navy as a vice admiral after 37 years of service. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1957 and served on destroyers in the Atlantic fleet until 1960, when he attended the U.S. Naval Post- graduate School, graduating in 1963 with an M.S.E.E. His first engineering duty assignment was as head of Navy Gun and Fire Control Systems and program manager for the Navy’s first digital fire control system—the MK-86 GFCS. From 1967 to 1991 he served in various assignments in the Strategic Systems Program

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184 APPENDIX B Office, becoming the director from 1985 to 1991. In his final assignment, Admiral Malley served as commander, Naval Sea Systems Command, with responsibil- ity for all naval ships and weapons systems, except fleet ballistic missiles, and all shore activities, such as weapon laboratories and shipyards supporting the deployed systems. After retirement from the Navy in 1994, he held several vice presidential positions at ARINC, Inc., headquarters in Annapolis, Maryland, until 2002. C. Wendell Mead is chief executive officer and chief technical director at AGRI, Inc., where he serves as a subject matter expert on ballistic missile defense and aerospace systems engineering, simulation, analysis, test, training, and evalua- tion projects. He has broad experience in aerospace and missile system concept definition, simulation, analysis, engineering, integration, test, training, and evalu- ation; strategic analysis and defense policy formulation; cost analysis; logistics; and test range operations and maintenance. Previously, Mr. Mead held high-level positions at SRS Technologies, U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Mr. Mead has M.S. degrees from Stanford University (man- agement) and Auburn University (aerospace engineering). Daniel L. Montgomery, BG, U.S. Army (ret.), is the CEO of Strategic Defense Solutions, a start-up founded in 2009 as a service-disabled, veteran-owned small business providing strategic and defense planning services. Prior to joining Stra- tegic Defense Solutions, he served as director of Northrop Grumman’s Air and Missile Defense market area. Retiring from the U.S. Army in 1999 with the rank of Brigadier General, he ended a 32-yr military career with his last assignment as the senior acquisition executive for Air and Missile Defense Systems. General Montgomery held many senior management and leadership roles, including the U.S. Army’s senior acquisition executive for air and missile defense systems. Today, General Montgomery serves as a member of the board of directors for the Chamber of Commerce of Huntsville/Madison County and as a member of the Association of the U.S. Army, the Navy League of the United States, the National Defense Industrial Association, and the Aerospace Industries Associa- tion. He has received many awards and decorations, including the Distinguished Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star Medal, and the Meritorious Service Medal. C. Kumar Patel (NAS/NAE) is a professor of physics and astronomy, chemistry, and electrical engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He is also the founder and CEO of Pranalytica, Inc., a Santa Monica, California, company that carries out R&D and manufactures and sells trace gas sensors for in situ detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives, systems for standoff detection of explosives (IEDs), and high-power mid-wave infrared and long-wave

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APPENDIX B 185 infrared quantum cascade lasers for applications in defense, homeland security, and commercial systems. He served as vice chancellor for research at UCLA from 1993 to 1999. Prior to joining UCLA in March 1993, he was the executive director of the Research, Materials Science and Engineering and Academic Af- fairs Division at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1961, when he began his career by carrying out research in the field of gas lasers. He is the inventor of the carbon dioxide laser, which is one of the most widely used lasers in industry. Dr. Patel received his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1961. In 1988 he was awarded an honorary doctor of sci- ence degree from the New Jersey Institute of Technology. In 1996 Dr. Patel was awarded the National Medal of Science by the President of the United States. Dr. Patel serves on the NRC’s Committee on Developments in Detector Technology and its Panel on Sensors and Electron Devices. Jonathan D. Pollack is a senior fellow with the John L. Thornton China Center at the Brookings Institution. Before that he was professor of Asian and Pacific studies and chairman of the Asia-Pacific Studies Group at the U.S. Naval War College. Between 2000 and 2004 he served as chairman of the College’s Strate- gic Research Department. Prior to joining the War College faculty in 2000, Dr. Pollack was affiliated with the RAND Corporation, where he served in a wide range of research and management positions. His major research interests include Chinese national security strategy; U.S. foreign and defense policy in Asia and the Pacific; Korean politics and foreign policy; and nuclear weapons and interna- tional politics. He is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), the Council on Foreign Relations, the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, and an emeritus member of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control, a standing committee of the National Academy of Sciences. He has authored numerous research monographs, edited volumes, journal articles, book chapters, and strategic commentaries, with particular emphasis on Chinese military development, U.S.-China relations, East Asian international relations, and U.S. defense strategy in East Asia. During 2008 and 2009 he undertook re- search on the rethinking of Korean nuclearization, supported by a grant from the John T. and Catherine D. MacArthur Foundation. A book based on this research, No Exit: North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and International Security, was pub- lished by the IISS in 2010 in the Institute’s new Adelphi Books series. David M. Van Wie is chief technologist for precision engagement at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where his principal research interests are in aerospace vehicle design and development with emphasis on propulsion systems and advanced aerodynamics for supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles. Dr. Van Wie also holds appointments as research professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University and lecturer in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

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186 APPENDIX B He received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering from the University of Maryland and an M.S. in electrical engineering, with emphasis on radar and communication systems, from Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Van Wie has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, to include the NRC Committee on Conventional Prompt Global Strike Capability. David R. Vaughan is a senior engineer in the Technology and Applied Sci- ence Department at the RAND Corporation. Prior to joining RAND in 1986, he worked at R&D Associates, the Institute for Defense Analyses, and the McDon- nell Douglas Aerospace Corporation. At RAND, Dr. Vaughan has performed research on countering hostile UAVs, nontraditional ISR, and counterinsurgency aircraft. Previously, he supported studies on close air support: technology and tactics; space support for military operations; and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance end-to-end analysis. Earlier, he led projects on the reconnaissance and surveillance force mix, which analyzed airborne and space SIGINT, IMINT and MTI sensors and platforms; theater missile defense/critical mobile targets, which performed operational and technical analyses of boost- and ascent-phase intercept, and air-to-surface attack operations; advanced technical options for conventional cruise missiles; and a net assessment of U.S. and Soviet strategic missile penetration systems. At R&D Associates, he worked on U.S. and Soviet offense and defense systems. At the Institute for Defense Analyses, his work in- cluded surface-to-air interceptor missile performance limits, submarine-launched ballistic missile performance limits, and radar tracking and prediction analysis. He was a member of the American Physical Society study panel on boost-phase intercept systems for national missile defense and an ad hoc member of an Air Force Scientific Advisory Board on theater air and missile defense. He is an as- sociate fellow of the AIAA and a recipient of the Leo Szilard Award of the Ameri- can Physical Society. Dr. Vaughan received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dean Wilkening is at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, having recently moved from serving as a senior research scientist at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University and worked at the RAND Corporation prior to coming to Stanford. His major research interests include nuclear strategy and policy, arms control, the proliferation of nuclear and biological weapons, bioterrorism, ballistic missile defense, and energy and security. His most recent research fo- cuses on the technical, strategic, and political aspects of ballistic missile defense deployments in northeast Asia, south Asia, and Europe. Prior work focused on the technical feasibility of boost-phase ballistic missile defense interceptors. His recent work on bioterrorism focuses on understanding the scientific and techni- cal uncertainties associated with predicting the outcome of hypothetical airborne biological attacks and the human effects of inhalation anthrax, with the aim of

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APPENDIX B 187 devising more effective civil defenses. He has participated in, and briefed, several National Academy of Science committees on biological terrorism and consults for several U.S. national laboratories and government agencies. Dr. Wilkening served on the NRC’s Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism: Biologi- cal Panel. Staff Charles F. Draper is director of the National Research Council’s Naval Stud- ies Board (NSB). He joined the NSB in 1997 as Program Officer then Senior Program Officer and in 2003 became associate director and acting director of the NSB. During his tenure with the NSB, Dr. Draper has served as study direc- tor on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy and DOD with their scientific, technical, and strategic planning. He served as study director for the report Conventional Prompt Global Strike: Issues for 2008 and Beyond. Before joining the NSB, Dr. Draper was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation, where he provided technical and program manage- ment support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater X-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships.