devising more effective civil defenses. He has participated in, and briefed, several National Academy of Science committees on biological terrorism and consults for several U.S. national laboratories and government agencies. Dr. Wilkening served on the NRC’s Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism: Biological Panel.


Charles F. Draper is director of the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board (NSB). He joined the NSB in 1997 as Program Officer then Senior Program Officer and in 2003 became associate director and acting director of the NSB. During his tenure with the NSB, Dr. Draper has served as study director on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy and DOD with their scientific, technical, and strategic planning. He served as study director for the report Conventional Prompt Global Strike: Issues for 2008 and Beyond. Before joining the NSB, Dr. Draper was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation, where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater X-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships.

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