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MARINE BOARD Chair: Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey Vice Chair: Thomas M. Leschine, University of Washington, Seattle Steven R. Barnum, Hydrographic Consultation Services, Suffolk, Virginia Jerry A. Bridges, Virginia Port Authority, Norfolk Mary R. Brooks, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada James C. Card, Maritime Consultant, The Woodlands, Texas Stephen M. Carmel, Maersk Line Limited, Norfolk, Virginia Edward N. Comstock, Raytheon Company, Sudbury, Massachusetts Stephan Toni Grilli, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett Douglas J. Grubbs, Crescent River Port Pilots Association, Metairie, Louisiana Frederick J. Harris, General Dynamics, San Diego, California Judith Hill Harris, City of Portland, Maine John R. Headland, Moffatt & Nichol Engineers, New York, New York John M. Holmes, Port of Los Angeles, San Pedro, California Ali Mosleh, University of Maryland, College Park George Berryman Newton, QinetiQ North America, Marstons Mills, Massachusetts Patrick Ernest O’Connor, BP America, Inc., Houston, Texas Robert W. Portiss, Tulsa Port of Catoosa, Oklahoma Peter K. Velez, Shell International Exploration and Production, Inc., Houston, Texas John William Waggoner, HMS Global Maritime, New Albany, Indiana TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Vice Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Division Chair for NRC Oversight: C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991) Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board

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SPECIAL REPORT 306 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century The Science and Technology Foundation for Future Naval Fleets Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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Transportation Research Board Special Report 306 Subscriber Categories Marine transportation; research; administration Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publi- cations directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or national-academies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or indi- vidual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Busi- ness Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the pro- cedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Naval engineering in the 21st century: the science and technology foundation for future naval fleets / Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. p. cm. -- (Transportation Research Board special report ; 306) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-309-16741-3 1. Naval research--United States. 2. Marine engineering--Research--United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century. V393.N275 2011 623.8--dc23 2011025371

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a man- date that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meet- ing national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Insti- tute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, con- ducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transporta- tion researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century Martha R. Grabowski, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, Chair Alan J. Brown, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg Charles N. Calvano, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California Edward N. Comstock, Raytheon Company, Sudbury, Massachusetts Narain G. Hingorani, Consultant, Los Altos Hills, California Leonard Imas, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey John D. Lee, University of Wisconsin–Madison Nancy G. Leveson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Donald Liu, American Bureau of Shipping (retired) Malcolm MacKinnon III, MacKinnon–Searle Consortium, LLC Michael W. Toner, General Dynamics (retired) Albert J. Tucker, Consultant Vincent Wilczynski, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Cindy Williams, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Ronald W. Yeung, University of California, Berkeley Solomon C. Yim, Oregon State University, Corvallis Dick K. P. Yue, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Transportation Research Board Staff Joseph R. Morris, Study Director Beverly Huey, Senior Program Officer Peter Johnson, Consultant

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Preface Naval engineering is the field of study and expertise that concerns the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of naval ships. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Department of the Navy sponsors basic and applied research in the scientific and technical fields that support naval engineering as well as education programs to ensure the supply of researchers and engineers in these fields. In 2001, ONR des- ignated naval engineering as a National Naval Responsibility (NNR), one of four technical areas that ONR has so designated. ONR committed to investing in basic and early applied research in the areas of ship design tools, ship structural materials, hydromechanics, advanced hull designs, ship propulsion, ship automation, and ship integration; conducting field experiments that integrate technologies into innovative ship concepts; and investing in students and research facilities in these areas. In addi- tion, ONR stated that it would examine the health of the national science and technology community supporting naval engineering. The purpose of the initiative is to ensure that ONR is able to sustain research in the United States on long-term problems of importance to the Navy; sustain the supply of researchers, engineers, and faculty; and provide superior science and technology in naval architecture and marine engineering. Assigning the NNR designation indicated that (a) the listed activities deserve special priority in planning and budgeting at ONR because the identified scientific and technical areas are critical to the Navy and lack support from other sources and (b) management of these activities must be coordinated with the stated objective in mind. This study originated in discussions at meetings of the Marine Board, a subunit of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies. These discussions highlighted the central role of ONR in vii

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viii Naval Engineering in the 21st Century sustaining research and education in naval engineering and identified the need to assess ONR’s effectiveness in fulfilling this role. As a result, in 2009 ONR asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a study to evaluate the state of basic and early applied research in naval engineering and related disciplines in the United States and to review the status of ONR’s efforts, through the National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engi- neering (NNR-NE) initiative, to ensure a healthy research and educational enterprise that meets the future technology needs of the Navy. TRB formed the Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century to respond to this request. The committee included members with experience in research in the fields that support naval engineering and in ship design and construc- tion and included three current or past members of the Marine Board. The committee relied on four sources of information in preparing its report. First, it reviewed past assessments of the state of the scientific and technical fields that support naval engineering by the Navy, NRC com- mittees, and professional societies. Second, it received from ONR lists of the basic and applied research and educational projects making up the NNR-NE portfolio and data on papers published and graduate students supported through ONR research grants in the NNR-NE technical areas. These data indicate the scope and direction of the initiative and the insti- tutions and researchers that participate. Third, the committee commissioned nine papers addressing aspects of its task. The backgrounds of the authors include scientific research, com- mand and management experience in the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) and in ONR, technology policy, naval history, and private- sector management and technical experience in naval and commercial ship design and construction. Appendix B gives the authors. Finally, the committee held three public information-gathering meet- ings organized as workshops. The committee asked the speakers and dis- cussants to address specific questions concerning innovation, the state of research and education, and the role of ONR in naval engineering. Participants included representatives from each of the groups involved in planning, conducting, and applying research in fields related to naval engineering: ONR and other research sponsors; researchers from univer- sities, the Navy laboratories, and industry; educators; NAVSEA; and pri- vate-sector shipbuilders and designers. Appendix A lists the workshop participants and presentation topics. The committee drew on the infor-

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Preface ix mation and advice it received in the workshops and papers in reaching its conclusions. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The pur- pose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that assist the authors and NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional stan- dards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain con- fidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The follow- ing individuals participated in the review of this report: Michael S. Bruno, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Charbel Farhat, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Robert E. Hebner, Jr., Uni- versity of Texas at Austin; Roy S. Kalawsky, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom; James L. Kirtley, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; William B. Morgan, Naval Surface Warfare Center (retired), Rockville, Maryland; Richard W. Thorpe, Herbert Engineering Corporation, Annapolis, Maryland; and Kirsi K. Tikka, American Bureau of Shipping, New York. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George W. Crabtree, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, and by C. Michael Walton, University of Texas at Austin. Appointed by NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Joseph R. Morris managed the study under the supervision of Stephen R. Godwin, Director, Studies and Special Programs. Pete Johnson, a consultant to TRB, provided important support to the committee, and Beverly Huey of TRB assisted in several aspects of the study. The report was drafted by members of the committee and by the TRB staff under the guidance of the committee. Suzanne Schneider, Associate Executive

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x Naval Engineering in the 21st Century Director of TRB, managed the report review process. Norman Solomon edited the report; Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor, handled the editorial production; Juanita Green, Production Manager, coordinated the design, typesetting, and printing; and Jennifer J. Weeks, Editorial Services Specialist, prepared the prepublication manuscript and back- ground papers for web posting, all under the supervision of Javy Awan, Director of Publications. Claudia Sauls assisted with manuscript prepara- tion, data tabulations, and meeting arrangements.

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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 15 National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engineering 18 NNR-NE in the Context of ONR’s Total Research Program 22 The Naval Engineering Enterprise in the United States 28 Report Structure 33 2 Science and Technology Shaping Future Naval Fleets 35 Research Needs 36 Science and Technology Opportunities 41 Annex 2-1: Technology Implications for the Future Navy 58 3 National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engineering Mission and Process for Achieving Goals 66 Establishing the Research Agenda and Allocating Resources 67 Identifying Performers 73 Measuring Outcomes and Evaluating Results 82 Maintaining Connections Across the Wider Naval Engineering Community 97 Integrating Naval Engineering S&T 102 Developing Human Capital and Revitalizing Naval Ship Systems Engineering 102

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4 Results and Future Prospects of the National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engineering 113 Health of the S&T Enterprise Supporting Naval Engineering 114 Contribution of ONR’s NNR-NE 127 Annex 4-1: NNR-NE Scientific and Technical Areas: Definitions and Rationales 161 Annex 4-2: Earlier Assessments of the State of Naval Engineering 168 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 174 Need for and Value of NNR-NE 175 Health of the S&T Enterprise Supporting Naval Engineering 177 Wholeness of the NNR-NE Portfolio 187 Opportunities to Enhance Research and Education 196 NNR-NE Effectiveness 199 Appendices 220 A Presentations to the Committee at Workshops and Meetings 220 B Abstracts of Commissioned Papers 223 Study Committee Biographical Information 232