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1 Introduction The United States Navy is the world leader in warship capabilities that allow the nation to respond to security threats at sea. A key factor in main- taining naval superiority is a solid science and technology (S&T) founda- tion supporting innovation in the design, construction, and maintenance of the Navy’s ships. The Ofﬁce of Naval Research (ONR) supports the S&T that will be essential to the ﬂeets of the future. Naval engineering includes all engineering and sciences as applied in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and logistical support of surface and subsurface ships, craft, and vehicles used by the Navy. The problems of naval engineering include the architecture and engineering of the mission, platform, and human systems that make up the ship. Naval engineering includes the design of weapons and related combat systems; however, this study’s consideration of these systems was limited to their integration into and support by the ship itself. ONR supports basic and applied research in the scientiﬁc and techni- cal ﬁelds that sustain innovation in naval engineering. It also supports educational programs to ensure the availability of new researchers enter- ing naval engineering–related ﬁelds. ONR deﬁned the scope, focus, and objectives of certain of its naval engineering S&T activities in a 2001 mem- orandum that designates naval engineering as a national naval responsi- bility (ONR 2001). ONR at present deﬁnes the scope of its National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engineering (NNR-NE) initiative to include ﬁve technical ﬁelds: structural systems; ship design tools; hydromechanics and hull design; propulsors; and automation, control, and system integration (J. Pazik, presentation to the committee, April 6, 2010). In addition, until 2010, the ONR division responsible for NNR-NE man- aged a program of basic and applied research projects in platform power 15
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16 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century and energy, which ONR included in tabulations of NNR-NE projects provided to the committee. In 2009, ONR asked the National Research Council (NRC) to examine the state of basic and applied research in the scientiﬁc and technical ﬁelds that support naval engineering and to advise ONR on whether activities under its NNR-NE initiative have been effective in sustaining these ﬁelds. ONR also asked NRC to identify opportunities to enhance innovation, research, and graduate education in these ﬁelds and to identify areas of sci- entiﬁc research that provide opportunities for fundamental advances in naval ship capabilities. Box 1-1 presents the committee’s task statement. BOX 1-1 Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Century: Statement of Task This study will evaluate the current state of science and technology—speciﬁcally, basic and early applied research— activities in naval engineering and closely related disciplines in the United States in the context of research, education (the “pipeline” of future naval researchers, graduate and postdoctoral), and the associated infrastructure. It will assess the robustness of activity, and, if appropriate, identify potential gaps and shortfalls in research and educational (graduate and postdoctoral) pro- grams. As appropriate, the study will provide recommendations for new opportunities to enhance innovation, research, and grad- uate educational capabilities in basic and applied research. Ultimately, the goal of this study is to inform the Ofﬁce of Naval Research (ONR) on the status of its efforts, under the National Naval Responsibility in Naval Engineering (NNR-NE), to ensure a healthy research and educational enterprise that meets the future technology needs necessary to advance the Navy’s ability to provide highly capable and affordable sea platforms.
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Introduction 17 This project will collect, synthesize, and evaluate data regarding seven (7) key university, government, and industry research activities in naval engineering: ship structural materials, design tools, hydromechanics, advanced hull designs, ship propulsion, ship automation, and systems integration. The data collected will be evaluated to assess the wholeness of the program and, as appro- priate, identify any key opportunities for the Navy to make funda- mental leaps in sea platform capability and affordability. The study will assess whether these seven disciplines adequately deﬁne the scope of NNR-NE. It will report on the health of the basic and early applied research, graduate and postgraduate research “pipeline” and the associated infrastructure necessary for a long-term, sustainable portfolio that will provide technol- ogy options for future Navy advanced technology development programs and affordable sea platforms. The study will advise on the ability of the NNR-NE’s portfolio of programs to provide steady, long-term support to the Navy unique core disciplines of naval engineering. Recommendations will be provided on the research areas within these disciplines necessary for the Navy to maintain/advance capabilities and affordability of future Navy platforms. It will assess the ability of the NNR-NE to maintain healthy and robust research activities, educational capa- bilities (graduate and postdoctoral), and the infrastructure that supports both. The study will comment on advances in naval engi- neering research and research “pipeline” activity since the initiation of the NNR-NE. Speciﬁcally, it will assess the NNR-NE’s progress in the ability to: (l) provide and sustain robust research expertise in the United States working on long-term problems of importance to the Department of the Navy; (2) ensure that an adequate pipeline of new researchers, engineers, and faculty continues; and (3) ensure that ONR can continue to provide superior S&T in naval architec- ture and marine engineering.
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18 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century NRC formed the Committee on Naval Engineering in the 21st Cen- tury to respond to ONR’s request. This report presents the results of the committee’s investigations and analyses. This chapter introduces naval engineering as a vital technical disci- pline and research and development enterprise in support of the Navy’s overall mission. It provides an overview of ONR’s NNR-NE initiative and discusses related activities as well as its connection to the larger ship design, development, and construction industries. The NNR-NE initia- tive has important connections to two larger endeavors: ONR’s overall research program and the nation’s overall naval engineering enterprise. This report will point out these connections and describe how ONR can use them to enhance its mission and meet its goals. NATIONAL NAVAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR NAVAL ENGINEERING ONR’s mission, as deﬁned in federal law, is to “plan, foster, and encour- age scientiﬁc research in recognition of its paramount importance as related to the maintenance of future naval power, and the preservation of national security” and to “manage the Navy’s basic, applied, and advanced research to foster transition from science and technology to higher levels of research, development, test, and evaluation” (ONR 2009, 1). ONR’s Discovery and Invention (D&I) portfolio makes broad invest- ments in basic and applied research, and within this portfolio, ONR has identiﬁed four areas as NNRs: ocean acoustics, underwater weaponry, underwater medicine, and naval engineering. These areas were desig- nated because they are essential to innovation in naval capabilities and because no organization other than the Navy will continually support research fulﬁlling unique Navy needs. ONR is committed to sustaining research investment in these areas (ONR 2009, 26). Naval engineering was designated an NNR in a 2001 ONR memoran- dum that speciﬁed the purpose of the designation and the activities that were to constitute the NNR-NE (Box 1-2). The memorandum was from F. E. Saalfeld, Executive Director of ONR (the senior civilian manager at ONR), and addressed to the director of ONR’s Engineering, Materials, and Physical Sciences Science and Technology Department. ONR was
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BOX 1-2 National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engineering The purpose and actions for execution of the constituent activities of the NNR-NE according to the memorandum “National Naval Program for Naval Engineering” (ONR 2001) are summarized below. Purpose of deﬁning the NNR-NE: The initiative is to position ONR to take responsibility for • Sustaining robust research in the United States on long-term problems of importance to the Navy; • Continuing an adequate pipeline of new researchers, engi- neers, and faculty; and • Continuing to provide superior S&T in naval architecture and marine engineering. Execution: The purpose of the NNR-NE is to be achieved by the following actions: • ONR is to dedicate the resources necessary for developing innovative shipbuilding concepts. In particular, resources are to be provided for – Investing in seven key S&T areas: ship design tools, ship struc- tural materials, hydromechanics, advanced hull designs, ship propulsion, ship automation, and ship integration; – Conducting major ﬁeld experiments that integrate tech- nologies into innovative ship concepts; and – Investing in infrastructure such as students, facilities, and equipment. • ONR is to examine the health of the national S&T community and, to ensure long-term strength in naval engineering, was to issue special broad agency announcements for three purposes: – Developing half of the pipeline of future naval researchers required to sustain expertise in naval engineering (estimated as ﬁve graduate and ﬁve postdoctoral fellowships per year), (continued on next page)
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20 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century BOX 1-2 (continued) National Naval Responsibility for Naval Engineering – Developing university–industry–laboratory consortia for S&T in naval engineering, and – Encouraging industry–university partnerships for career development of future naval engineers. [This requirement (Item 4.d in the 2001 memorandum) appears to be a further speciﬁcation of the infrastructure investments that the preceding bullet point (Item 4.a in the memorandum) calls for.] • The ONR division responsible for the NNR-NE is to seek the required resources through ONR’s Investment Balance Review and other appropriate channels. • The progress and impact of the efforts supporting NNR-NE are to be reviewed every 5 years by a panel of experts including academic, military, and industry representation. The ONR instruction stating the policy for designating an S&T initiative as an NNR, issued in 2007 and revised in 2010, also spec- iﬁes required activities in NNR initiatives (ONR 2010, 3–4). The department responsible for an NNR is to • Formulate thrust areas within the ﬁeld to provide S&T prod- ucts that ensure naval superiority, • Coordinate the NNR with other efforts including ONR Future Naval Capabilities technology transition initiatives and activ- ities at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, • Augment basic research with experiments focused on promot- ing applications and balance theoretical with experimental research, • Promote knowledge base development and retention through a military ofﬁcer fellowship program or an entry-level faculty support program, • Report annually on progress of the NNR, and • Submit the NNR to review by an independent board at least every 5 years.
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Introduction 21 already engaged in all or nearly all of the speciﬁed activities before the memorandum was issued. Rather than initiating new programs, the memorandum served as a declaration of policy: assigning the NNR des- ignation indicated that (a) the listed activities deserve special priority in planning and budgeting at ONR because the identiﬁed S&T ﬁelds are critical to the Navy and no one else will support them and (b) manage- ment of these activities must be coordinated with the declared policy objective in mind. ONR provided the committee with tabulations of the basic and applied research projects supported by ONR grants or contracts and of ONR-supported educational projects that made up the NNR-NE portfolio of activities for the years 2006 to 2009. In these tabulations, ONR categorized research projects into six scientiﬁc and technical areas: • Automation, control, and system integration; • Ship design tools; • Hydromechanics and hull design; • Platform power and energy; • Propulsors; and • Structural systems. In addition to the research projects categorized into these areas, the ONR tabulation of the NNR-NE portfolio includes a number of projects cat- egorized as educational. The educational projects are activities to attract students and train beginning researchers in the ﬁelds related to naval engineering. The committee accepted this tabulation as the deﬁnition of the ONR research and educational activities that ONR now includes within the NNR-NE initiative. The committee understands that the six scientiﬁc and technical areas are the areas that ONR views as constituting the National Naval Responsibility. This list of the scientiﬁc and technical areas within NNR-NE differs somewhat from the list of seven scientific and technical areas specified in the 2001 memorandum creating the NNR-NE (see Box 1-2). It is the committee’s understanding that the change since 2001 has been primarily in the titles given to the areas rather than in the scope of the ONR activities considered to make up the NNR-NE initiative. The most
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22 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century 50 45 40 35 $ Millions 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 FIGURE 1-1 ONR spending for naval engineering basic and applied research and education, 2006–2009. (SOURCE: Tabulations of NNR-NE project data provided by ONR to the committee.) signiﬁcant change from the 2001 list of areas is the addition of the plat- form power and energy category. This addition reﬂects a substantial but temporary increase in funding in this area, which ONR received after 2001. Presumably, in 2001, projects in power and energy would have been included in the ship propulsion category. Table 4-1 in Chapter 4 compares the 2001 and present lists of scientiﬁc and technical areas. In 2009, the ONR tabulation lists 232 NNR-NE projects under way; they received $47.4 million in ONR funding in that year (Figure 1-1). Most projects are conducted at U.S. universities, with Navy laboratories, private-sector ﬁrms, and foreign research institutions also participating (Figure 1-2). Power and energy research projects received the largest share of 2009 funding, followed by projects in hydrodynamics and in structures (Figure 1-3). NNR-NE IN THE CONTEXT OF ONR’s TOTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM NNR-NE is one element of ONR’s overall research and development activities supporting naval engineering. Assessment of the initiative must take into account its relation to the other activities and whether the scope of the initiative is adequately deﬁned. In addition, evaluating whether
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Introduction 23 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 University Navy Lab Industry Foreign FIGURE 1-2 Number of active NNR-NE projects by performing sector, FY 2009. (SOURCE: Tabulations of NNR-NE project data provided by ONR to the committee.) Automation, Control, and System Integration Structural Systems Ship Design Tools Education Propulsors Hydromechanics and Hull Design Power and Energy FIGURE 1-3 Funds committed for NNR-NE projects by field, FY 2009 (total outlays = $47.4 million). (SOURCE: Tabulations of NNR-NE project data provided by ONR to the committee.)
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24 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century NNR-NE is capable of satisfying the Navy’s needs requires examina- tion of how the initiative is connected to other elements of the innova- tion process. ONR’s research and development portfolio is organized into three directorates: Research, Innovation, and Transition. This organization seeks to invest in S&T to meet Navy strategic goals through a series of stages, from basic research through development of products that pro- vide new naval capabilities. ONR’s Naval S&T Strategic Plan describes the D&I research portfolio (the primary activity of the Research Direc- torate) as follows: Discovery and Invention (D&I) consists of Basic Research (Budget Activity (BA) 6.1) and early Applied Research (BA 6.2), and is the seed corn for future naval technologies and systems. The D&I portfolio, by design has a broad focus, and programs are selected based on potential naval relevance and tech- nology opportunity. D&I investments leverage other service, governmental, department, industry, international and general research community invest- ments. The D&I portfolio supports sustained funding of the four National Naval Responsibilities (NNR): Ocean Acoustics, Underwater Weaponry, Naval Engineering and Undersea Medicine. (ONR 2009, 3) The Innovation Directorate manages ONR’s Innovative Naval Pro- totypes portfolio, projects to develop potentially high-value technolo- gies to a level near the stage of transition to application. The Transition Directorate manages the Future Naval Capabilities portfolio, projects to “mature technology into requirements-driven, transition oriented products” (ONR 2009, 3). These two directorates do not sponsor basic (Budget Activity 1) research. ONR research and development projects also are organized into six departments according to intended areas of application (see Figure 1-4). NNR-NE is administered by the director of the Ship Systems and Engineer- ing Research Division within the Sea Warfare and Weapons Department. Research projects in the NNR-NE are exclusively in the D&I port- folio, that is, basic research and early applied research. The definitions that ONR uses for basic and applied research and advanced technology development are shown in Box 1-3. These deﬁnitions are used by the Department of Defense in budget formulation and in the department’s budget proposals and justiﬁcations addressed to Congress for Research,
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Chief of Naval Research Director Director Director (Discovery and (Innovative (Future Naval of of of Invention) Naval Capabilities) Innovation Transition Research Prototypes) 30 31 32 33 34 35 Expeditionary Command, Control, Ocean Sea Warfare Warfighter Air Warfare Warfare and Communications, Battlespace and Performance and Combating Terrorism Computers, Intelligence, Sensing Weapons Weapons Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) FIGURE 1-4 ONR S&T directorate organization. (NNR-NE is managed in the Ship Systems and Engineering Research Division, one of three divisions of the Sea Warfare and Weapons Department.) (SOURCE: J. Pazik, presentation to the committee, April 6, 2010.)
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26 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century BOX 1-3 Department of Defense Research and Development Budget Activity Deﬁnitions Budget Activity 1, Basic Research: Basic research is systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable facts without speciﬁc applications towards processes or prod- ucts in mind. It includes all scientiﬁc study and experimenta- tion directed toward increasing fundamental knowledge and understanding in those ﬁelds of the physical, engineering, environmental, and life sciences related to long-term national security needs. It is farsighted high payoff research that provides the basis for technological progress. . . . Budget Activity 2, Applied Research: Applied research is sys- tematic study to understand the means to meet a recognized and speciﬁc need. It is a systematic expansion and application of knowledge to develop useful materials, devices, and sys- tems or methods. It may be oriented, ultimately, toward the design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet general mission area requirements. Applied research may translate promising basic research into solutions for broadly deﬁned military needs, short of system development. The dominant characteristic is that applied research is directed toward general military needs with a view toward developing and evaluating the feasibility and practicality of proposed solutions and determining their parameters, exploration efforts and paper studies of alterna- tive concepts for meeting a mission need. . . . Budget Activity 3, Advanced Technology Development (ATD): This budget activity includes development of subsystems and components and efforts to integrate subsystems and
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Introduction 27 components into system prototypes for field experiments and/or tests in a simulated environment. ATD includes con- cept and technology demonstrations of components and sub- systems or system models. The models may be form, ﬁt and function prototypes or scaled models that serve the same demonstration purpose. The results of this type of effort are proof of technological feasibility and assessment of subsystem and component operability and producibility rather than the development of hardware for service use. Projects in this cat- egory have a direct relevance to identiﬁed military needs. . . . Budget Activities 4, 5, 6, and 7 are Advanced Component Develop- ment and Prototypes; System Development and Demonstration; Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Management Sup- port; and Operational System Development, respectively. SOURCE: DOD 2010. Development, Test, and Evaluation appropriations. In ONR documents, projects funded as Budget Activity 1 are referred to as basic research, and projects funded as Budget Activity 2 often are referred to as early applied research (to distinguish them from Budget Activity 3 and above projects that might also be characterized as applied research). Research and development related to naval engineering is conducted under all three directorates. Basic and applied research relevant to naval engineering may also be conducted in divisions other than Ship Systems and Engineering Research (for example, in the Ocean Engineering and Marine Systems Division and in the Naval Materials Division). The 2010 ONR instruction stating the policy for designating new NNRs requires that management of each NNR be coordinated with related Innovative Naval Prototypes and Future Naval Capabilities as well as with relevant research outside ONR (ONR 2010, 3–4). Coordination of relevant D&I research with the NNR in all ONR divisions is not mentioned but is implied.
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28 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century ONR management seeks to coordinate work in Budget Activities 1, 2, and 3 by vertically integrating management of related programs at all three levels to enhance connectivity and thus allow projects at the three levels to become mutually supporting. The NNR concept is an attempt to establish direction and long-term goals for a group of related basic and applied research programs (Gaffney et al. 1999, 13–15). These arrangements are consistent with the recommendation of the 2005 report of the NRC Com- mittee on Department of Defense Basic Research that the department “should view basic research, applied research, and the other phases of research and development as continuing activities that occur in parallel, with numerous supporting connections among them” (NRC 2005, 5). The intent of such arrangements is that through continuing close contact and interaction among researchers and research managers working on basic research, applied research, and development projects, basic research will be guided in directions with long-term relevance and value. Such coor- dination is useful not only within ONR and the Navy at large but also with related activities in the entire naval engineering enterprise. THE NAVAL ENGINEERING ENTERPRISE IN THE UNITED STATES By deﬁnition, naval engineering is multidisciplinary in scope, of broad application, and practiced by a diverse community. It includes engineers engaged in all phases of design, construction, operation, maintenance, and logistical support of naval ships, craft, and vehicles. The practition- ers come from various engineering disciplines and have received diverse formal engineering education backgrounds, but they have a common understanding of the unique requirements, characteristics, capabilities, and limitations associated with ships. The naval engineering enterprise includes all entities that conduct the business of naval ship systems research, development, design, acquisition, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and disposal. The groups that make up this enterprise in the United States are the Navy commands, private-sector engineering ﬁrms, naval shipbuilding and equipment manufacturing industries, universities that conduct research and train engineers and researchers, and private-sector research organizations.
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Introduction 29 Commercial ship operators and shipbuilders, the recreational yacht and boat industry, and the offshore petroleum industry share technologies with naval engineering. The larger naval engineering enterprise depends on ONR to identify and support research and development leading to improved performance and efﬁciency. Effective communication between ONR and all elements of the naval engineering enterprise is essential for ensuring that ONR meets the needs of the Navy for innovation. Of the total technical workforce engaged in the larger enterprise, only a small portion makes up the community conducting the research that is the focus of this study. Scientists and engineers from many disciplines contribute to the knowledge base and bring innovative ideas to naval engineering. The relevant disciplines include aeronautical and aerospace engineering; biosciences; chemical engineering; chemistry; civil engi- neering; cognitive, neural, and behavioral science; electrical and com- puter engineering; information sciences; marine engineering; materials science and engineering; mathematics; mechanical engineering; naval architecture; nuclear engineering; ocean engineering; oceanography; operations research; physics; and industrial and systems engineering. ONR’s basic and early applied research programs in support of naval engineering must coordinate the contributions that these disciplines offer by integrating innovations to enable advances in naval capabilities and provide solutions to Navy problems. Figure 1-5 shows the variety of disciplines in which the NNR-NE principal investigators received their graduate training. This diversity indicates that the challenge facing ONR in the NNR-NE initiative is to attract researchers from a broad range of backgrounds to work on a particular set of problems that are critical to the practice of naval engineering. In addition to ONR, numerous government and private institutions participate in the training of naval engineers and naval engineering researchers and conduct and sponsor basic and applied research and development in support of naval engineering. The following categories of engineering and science schools and research institutions contribute to the naval engineering enterprise: • Private-sector research and engineering businesses that perform inde- pendent or government-sponsored research and development; • Dedicated U.S. government research and engineering entities;
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30 25 20 15 Percent 10 5 0 Mechanical Aeronautical/ Civil Electrical Naval Materials Ocean Physics/ Oceanography Other Engineering/ Aerospace/ Engineering Engineering Architecture Science Engineering Engineering Engineering Aerospace and Physics Mechanics Mechanical Engineering FIGURE 1-5 Departments in which principal investigators in ONR 2009 NNR-NE projects earned their graduate degrees. (SOURCE: Project lists provided to the committee by ONR.)
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Introduction 31 • U.S. universities that have a major program focused on naval engi- neering and that participate in naval engineering research; • U.S. universities that typically do not speciﬁcally educate for or place students in the naval engineering enterprise but participate in naval engineering research programs; • U.S. universities focused on education for the maritime sector, includ- ing the United States Naval Academy, the Merchant Marine Academy, the Coast Guard Academy, and the Naval Postgraduate School; and • Foreign research institutions. ONR supports projects conducted by all of these institutions. In FY 2009 ONR funded research, through its NNR-NE initiative, at 51 U.S. univer- sities, seven Navy and other federal government institutions, 10 private- sector ﬁrms, and 13 foreign research institutions. There is little non-ONR funded research at universities on the topics that are funded through the NNR-NE, with the exception of research funded by branches of the Navy. There is also some limited funding of university research by shipyards, major ship operators, and classiﬁcation societies, but this tends to be more applied research than basic research. A variety of associated government agencies also participate in the naval engineering enterprise. The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Warfare Centers and Naval Research Laboratory are parts of the naval engineering enterprise that conduct naval engineering–related research. The NAVSEA Warfare Centers include the Naval Surface Warfare Cen- ters (NSWC), which has eight locations, and the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, which has two locations. The Warfare Centers are the Navy’s principal research, development, test, and evaluation assessment facili- ties for surface ship and submarine systems and subsystems. Located at NSWC Carderock is the Center for Innovation in Ship Design (CISD). Its mission is to “ensure the future capability (People, Tools and Knowl- edge) of the nation to develop innovative ship designs to effectively meet defense needs” (NSWC n.d.). CISD is funded by NAVSEA and by ONR. ONR classifies its CISD contribution as a part of the NNR-NE. A significant part of the total funding through the NNR-NE supports projects within these Navy facilities (especially NSWC Carderock), but this source makes up only a small portion of the total funding of these institutions.
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32 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century Department of Defense research institutions other than the Navy con- duct activities relevant to the objectives of NNR-NE. For example, the Department of Defense funds the Computational Research and Engineer- ing Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE) initiative, a 12-year, $360 million program. CREATE is an applied research and development initiative; its purpose is to develop and deploy computational engineer- ing tools for the design of aircraft, ships, and radio-frequency antennas. The National Science Foundation funds basic and applied research in related ﬁelds, including ﬂuid dynamics; structural materials; systems engi- neering, design, and control; and energy and power systems. Finally, private maritime industries in the United States devote some limited resources to research and development, but for the most part research related to NNR-NE in the maritime industries applicable to Navy ships is funded by the Navy. One example is the National Shipbuild- ing Research Program (NSRP), which is a collaboration of 11 U.S. ship- yards working with government, industry, and academia. NSRP’s mission is to manage national shipbuilding and ship repair research and develop- ment funding and focus it on technologies that will reduce the cost of war- ships to the U.S. Navy and other national security customers by leveraging commercial practices and improving the efﬁciency of the U.S. industry. NSRP also provides a collaborative forum to improve business and acqui- sition processes. NSRP is sponsored by NAVSEA. There are examples of industry-led innovations that have served as a route to discovery and invention and subsequently application. In one case, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding’s Gulf Coast Operations led an initia- tive to bring composites to naval shipbuilding. The company supported initial research and development activities that eventually resulted in part- nering with the U.S. Navy on large composite structures. These innovative designs were subsequently installed as a technology demonstration on the USS Arthur W. Radford (DD 968) and as a classwide implementation on the LPD 17 and DDG 1000 ﬂeets (Hackett 2010). In another example, General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) developed a shipbuilding strategy based on licensing proven designs to reduce cost and risk, improve productivity through tech- nology transfer, and leverage purchasing power with large shipyards. This strategy led to a partnership between NASSCO and Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering. The partnership is proposing to use the T-AKE dry cargo and ammunition ship as a parent hull for a variety of U.S. Navy
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Introduction 33 needs, including ﬂeet oiler, joint command and control ship, and hospital ship. In this case study, the innovation is not the product but rather the method (B. J. Carter, presentation to the committee, Jan. 13, 2010). While there is some naval engineering research by the classiﬁcation societies, it is primarily to support the development of classiﬁcation rules and construction standards for commercial ships and other marine struc- tures. Other research supported by the maritime industries in the United States has little tangible connection to the naval engineering S&T programs of ONR. In summary, the ONR NNR-NE initiative must be evaluated within the larger context of the nation’s naval engineering enterprise and the ONR’s total research effort so that proper emphasis is given to the role of research and development in shaping the naval ﬂeets of the future. The committee’s investigations and study results have recognized this and are intended to assist ONR in maintaining a healthy and productive research endeavor to meet mission goals. REPORT STRUCTURE Chapter 2 addresses research needs and opportunities in naval engineer- ing. Chapter 3 describes how ONR functions to deﬁne goals, determine research agendas, select researchers, measure outcomes of its activities, foster technology transitions, and maintain connections with the wider community in naval engineering. The chapter also identiﬁes alternative models for operating practices. Chapter 4 presents the committee’s assess- ments, based on the analyses in preceding chapters, of the current state of health of the S&T ﬁelds that support naval engineering and the contri- bution of the NNR-NE in sustaining these fields. Chapter 5 summarizes the committee’s conclusions and presents recommendations on how ONR can ensure the continued ﬂow of innovations that allow advances in the capabilities of Navy ships. REFERENCES Abbreviations DOD Department of Defense NRC National Research Council NSWC Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division ONR Ofﬁce of Naval Research
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34 Naval Engineering in the 21st Century DOD. 2010. Financial Management Regulation (DOD 7000.14-R), Volume 2B, Chapter 5: Research, Development and Evaluation Appropriations. Dec. Gaffney, P., F. E. Saalfeld, and J. F. Petrik. 1999. Science and Technology from an Invest- ment Point of View: How ONR Handles Department of the Navy’s Portfolio. Public Management, Sept.–Oct., pp. 12–17. Hackett, J. P. 2010. Composites Road to the Fleet—A Collaborative Success Story. Paper commissioned by the committee, June 18. NRC. 2005. Assessment of Department of Defense Basic Research. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. NSWC. n.d. Center for Innovation in Ship Design. http://www.dt.navy.mil/tot-shi- sys/cen-inn-shi/index.html. ONR. 2001. Memorandum: National Naval Program for Naval Engineering. Oct. 22. ONR. 2009. Naval S&T Strategic Plan: Deﬁning the Strategic Direction for Tomorrow. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA499909&Location=U2&doc=Get TRDoc.pdf. ONR. 2010. Department of the Navy Science and Technology National Naval Respon- sibility Initiative. ONR Instruction 5250.1A. July 26.