• International partnerships may encounter some issues that are quite distinct from domestic partnerships. On the other hand, there are issues that are going to be relevant across the board. Cultural differences may be clearer when accompanied by ethnic, national, or linguistic differences. Cultural differences between organizations and sectors in the same country may be less apparent but perhaps no less real.
  • As these principles are operationalized, some clearly bad practices or actions might be forbidden. In addition, there could be actions that are okay, actions that are recommended, and actions that are required. Doing a systematic analysis within the setting of the partnership and taking into account the legal and regulatory frameworks may help in coming up with a clear approach.
  • There are several tools that might be developed for a primer on international research collaborations. For example, it might be useful to have a list of frequently asked questions, covering issues that may be confusing. Also, case studies and vignettes could be very valuable.



Alexander, Madeline and Wendy Reed Williams. 2004. A Guidebook for Teaching Selected Responsible Conduct of Research Topics to a Culturally Diverse Trainee Group. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Davis, Michael. 1991. Thinking Like an Engineer. Philosophy and Public Affairs (Spring) 20 (2): 164-165.

Harris, Charles E., Jr. 1998. Engineering Responsibilities in Lesser-Developed Nations: The Welfare Requirement. Science and Engineering Ethics 4 (3): 321-331.

Schlossberger, Eugene. 1997. The Responsibility of Engineers, Appropriate Technology, and Lesser Developed Nations. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3): 317-326.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement