study abroad opportunities for U.S. students as suggested by Kathie Olsen in her keynote talk might also be worthwhile. Establishing some level of “innovation literacy,” and understanding that innovation literacy includes technical and non-technical elements, are other goals to consider.

  • Possible Industry Actions. Companies could benefit by becoming more “university literate,” i.e., understanding better the operating context of universities. Companies also could better define what is “precompetitive” for IP purposes; this will allow for better opportunities to collaborate early in the research process.
  • Possible Actions by Government, Universities, and Industry Together. Better understanding among the three sectors could be helpful. This includes a shared understanding that IP is part of the commercialization pipeline and is a means, not an end.



Gene Quinn. 2010. An Exclusive Interview with Francis Gurry, WIPO Director General. IP Watchdog. May 4. Available at:

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