university science parks, and on boosting productivity. Mr. Yang has a particularly strong background in commercialization of information and space technology, he said.

Anna Barker has an extensive background in leading and managing scientific research, Mr. Bonvillian explained. Dr. Barker is deputy director of the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. She also is deputy director for strategic initiatives in science. Dr. Barker “has done very interesting work on nanotechnology and its application to cancer,” he said. She also has worked on the Cancer Genome Atlas Project. Dr. Barker also has been a scientist herself. Prior to joining the NIH, she led a large team performing cancer research at the Battelle Memorial Institute. Dr. Barker also has been CEO of a biotech drug-development company.

The third speaker, Robin Newmark, is director of the Strategic Energy Analysis Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “She has led very interesting work on the interrelationship between water and energy, including the impact on climate change, the de-nitrification of agriculture, and development of energy-efficient water-treatment technologies,” Mr. Bonvillian said.

International Collaboration
and Indigenous Innovation

Yang Xianwu
Ministry of Science and Technology

China has achieved remarkable economic progress since reform began and the nation opened up to the outside in 1978, Mr. Yang said. The economic has grown rapidly, living standards have improved, and China’s overall strength has been greatly enhanced.

But China still faces problems, Mr. Yang noted. The level of Chinese industries remains relatively low on world standards. Most industries focus on manufacturing. During the financial crisis, many such enterprises closed. “The economic structure is unbalanced and improper,” he said. “Also, our development is unsustainable.” Manufacturing accounts for too high a proportion of the overall economy and the service sector too low. Energy consumption is relatively high, given the nation’s GDP. “To tackle these problems, we feel we have to strengthen innovation, especially scientific and technological innovation, to transform China’s economic development pattern and change the industrial structure,” Mr. Yang said. “The ultimate goal is to make our



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