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Index A Advanced Nuclear Sy~terru for Portable Power ire Space, 8 Air Force, 7, 77 Alcoa, 77 Alert mode definition of power requirements, 1, 10, 22, 67, 129, 132 nuclear power, 29-30 power requirements, 1, 2, 3, 4, lo, 16, 22, 76, 100 Alkali-metal thermoelectric converter, 15 Allied Signal Company, 83 Alloys, 41, 72, 75, 83, 84-85 Alternators, 31, 53, 57, 58, 72, 76-78 Aluminum, 72, 77-78 Apollo program, 30, 32, 47 Architecture systems, 24 solar power structures, 30-31 see ~80 Space Power Architecture System (SPAS) Army Research and Development Center-Kaman Company (ARDEC-KAMAN), 77 Army (U.S.), 7, 77 B Batteries, 15, 57 Beam weapons, 8CC Directed-energy weapons 135 Brayton cycle, 29 architecture systems, 52, 56, 58-59, 60, 62 defined, 24 dynamic power conversion, 40, 75, 76 solar power, 31 structural material needs, 63 Burst mode definition, 1, 10, 67 effluent effects, 3-4, 51, 132 mass and complexity factors, 18 nuclear power, 29 power requirements, 1-2, 3, 1o-ll, 16, 23, 99, 100, 13 power storage, 12 C Capacitors, 78-79, 82, 96 Carbon-carbon composites, 63, 84 Ceramics, 74, 79, 82, 84 Chemical lasers, 11 Chemical power, 2, 32-33, 92, 95 deployment, 4, 100 effluents, 28, 30, 90 magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), 18, 24, 33-34, 53, 57, 90, 95 w. nuclear power, 30 Civil space missions, 1, 6, 14-15 Apollo program, 30, 32, 47 lunar missions, 15, 35

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136 nuclear power and, 2, 14, 89, 131, 132-133 Skylab, 30 Space Shuttle, 32, 50, 121-128 Space Station, 8, 31, 56, 75-76, 98, 130 em also National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Closed-cycle power systems, 17-18, 29, 31, 52, 58-60 defined, 24-25 effluents, 63, 99 mass factors, 43, 49, 58, 63, 76, 99 see also Brayton cycle; Rankine cycle; Stirling cycle Coatings, 85 Colladay, Raymond S., 7 Command, communications, and control systems, 10 Committee on Advanced Nuclear Systems, 7 Committee on Advanced Space Based High Power Technologies expertise and methodology, 6-8 Communications, 10, 13 Conductors, 71-72, 79 superconductors, 4, 64-65, 72-75, 77, 78, 89, 90 Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 38-39 Cooling systems, Cc Heat transfer and rejection Copper, 72 Cost factors, 2, 3, 5, 16, 67, 87, 130, 131 heat transfer and rejection systems, 69, 70 life cycle and survivability, 19, 20, 85 Cryogenics, 32-33, 77 power needs, 10 storage of hydrogen and oxygen, 4, 85 D Data bases, 19-20 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, 40 Defense Nuclear Agency, 78-79 INDEX Department of Defense, interdepartmental initiatives, 5, 40, 64, 93, 100, 134; Cc also Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) Department of Energy, interdepartmental initiatives, 5, 40, 64, 92, 100, 134 Deutch, John M., 8 Directed-energy weapons, 1, 3, 9, 12, 22-23, 88, 90 Dynamic isotope power sources, 40 EEarth orbit, Cc Geosynchronous orbit; Low earth orbit; Orbiting systems; Platforms Electrical power, battle alert and burst-mode needs, 2, 16 Electric propulsion, 13 Electromagnetic transmissions, 4, 8, 28, 45-46 free-electron lasers, 11, 89, 90, 122 lasers, 2, 11, 45-46, 130 microwave transmission, 2, 45-46, 130 Energy conversion, sec Power conversion Energy storage, 16, 17, 28 alert mode, 10 burst mode, 12 ground-based, 3 propellants, 32 superconducting magnetic energy storage, 74-75, 89, 90 thermal w. battery, 15 Energy weapons directed-energy, 1, 3, 9, 12, 22-23, 88, 90 kinetic energy, 9, 11, 90 Environmental factors, 85 effluents effects, 3-4, 22, 26, 28, 30, 43, 47-48, 49-51, 63, 70, 90, 99, 121-128, 131, 132 international law, 38-39 National Environmental Act, 4, 44, 132 nuclear power, 30, 36-39, 43, 44 orbital hazards to SDI, 16-17, 46-47, 48 Policy

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INDEX Excimer lasers, 11 F Fiscal issues, 4,89,98-loo SDIO budget, 87-88, gl-99, 131 Bee also Cost factors Fordyce, J. Stuart, 7 Free-electron lasers, 11, 89, go, 122 G General Electric, 34,53, 57, 77,83, 122 Geosynchronous orbit, 12,46 Gravity, see Microgravity Ground-based systems, 2,5,8,27, 44-46 lasers, 11, 89 weapons, 12 Ground engineering systems, SP-100, 41-42 H Heat transfer and rejection, 13,16, 24,28,29,68, 69-71, 79,85 closed- w. open-cycle systems, 29, 63 conductor coolants, 72 mass factors, 69, 70 SP-100 space reactor, 42 High-temperature materials, 63,79, 82 gas turbine solar power and, 75 magnetohydrodynamic systems, 34 SP-100 space reactor, 41 structural materials, 84-85 High-temperature superconductors, 64-65, 74,82 Housekeeping mode power needs, 10, 29 I Independent Evaluation Group, 7, 28,53,58,96 Insulation (electric and thermal), 79, 83-84,132 battle burst-mode effects, 4 cryogenics, 33 mass problems, 48-49, 79,82 137 solar power and, 31,48-49 International law, 38-39 Investment issues, 4,87-88,89, 91-97,98-100,13 J Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 14 K Kinetic energy weapons, 9, 11, 90 L Lasers, 2, 11, 45-46,130 free-electron lasers, 11, 89, go,122 Launch weight factors, 2,3,21,60, 67,131 Law, sec Statutes Lidar, 11 Life-cycle factors, sec Survivability Low earth orbit, 12, 45 Lunar missions, 15,35 M Magnetic energy storage, 74-75,89, 90 Magnetic fields, 31,49,79,86 superconductors and, 77 Magnetic materials, 83 Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), 18, 24,33-34,53,57,90, 95 Martin-Marietta, Inc., 53,57,58,122 Mass/weight factors, 12, 78-79,85, 130-131 chemical power systems, 32 closed-cycle systems, 43,49,53, 58-60,63,76,99 cryogenics, 33,60 effluents from power systems and, 50-51,63,99,130 ground-based power beaming, 45 heat rejection equipment, 28-29, 69, 70 insulation, 48, 79,82 launch weight factors, 2,3,21,60, 67,131 lunar power systems, 35 nuclear power systems, 35,40

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138 open-cycle systems, 53-55, 58-59, 63, 99, 131 sensitivity for system choice, 17-18 solar power systems, 30, 31, 35 superconductors and, 73 survivability v`., 21 Materials technology, 17, 82, 83-85, 131 alloys, 41, 72, 75, 83, 84-85 ceramics, 74, 79, 82, 84 coatings, 85 conductors, 71-72, 79 high-temperature materials, 34, 41, 63, 75, 79, 82, 84-85 high-temperature superconductors, 64-65, 74, 82 NASA civil space missions, 14 semiconductors, 84 SP-100 space reactor, 41 structural materials, 63, 84-85 superconductors, 4, 64-65, 72-75, 77, 78, 89, 90 Metallic glasses, 83 Microgravity, 79 Microwave transmission, 2, 45-46, 130 Military space missions (non-SDI) nuclear power (SP-100), 2, 89, 131 132-133 power requirements, 13-14, 15 Strategic Defense Initiative, sec Alert mode; Burst mode Models, of subsystem components, 19-20 Molybdenum, 75 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 6, 7-8, 14-15, 35, 93, 99, 130, 131 interdepartmental initiatives, 5, 40, 93, 100, 134 National Environmental Policy Act, 4, 44, 132 National Research Council, 8 National Science Foundation, 64-65 Neutral-particle beams, 50, 122-128 Niobium, 75 Nitze criteria, 20 INDEX Nonmilitary space missions, see Civil ~ space missions Nuclear power, 34-44, 87 alert mode, 10, 29-30 burst mode, 29 civil missions, 2, 14, 89, 131 deployment schedule, 44, 130 fusion reactors, 28-29, 44 high-temperature materials, 79 non-SDI military missions, 13-14 reactors in space, 2, 17, 24, 26, 28-29, 34, 36, 38, 40-44, 53, 57, 130; dCC ~80 SNAP-1OA; SP-100 safety and environmental factors, 30, 36-39, 40, 42, 43, 44 o Open-cycle power systems, 2, 17-19, 30, 49, 52, 61 cryogens and, 32 defined, 25-26 effluents, 43, 47, 4050, 63, 131 mass factors, 53-55, 58-59, 63, 131 Orbiting systems battle burst-mode effects on, 3-4 co-orbiting power sources, 46 geosynchronous orbit, 12, 46 low earth orbit, 12, 45 magnetohydrodynamic system perturbations, 34 platforms, 3, 4, 11-12, 67, 87, 88, 97, 100, 131-132 reactors in space, 2, 17, 24, 26, 28-29, 34, 36, 38, 40-44, 53, 57, 130; sec also SNAP-1OA; SP-100 Outer Space Treaty, 38 A Particle beams, 11 Payloads, JCC Mass/weight factors Photovoltaic power, 14, 3~31; JCC also Solar power Plasma physics, arc Space plasma Platforms, 3, 67, 87, 88, 97, 100, 131 burst-mode eEects on sensors, 4, 132 deployment, 4 energy requirements, 11-12 Pollution, sec Environmental factors

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INDEX Power conversion, 16, 17, 68, 70, 99, 130 directed-energy weapons, 12 dynamic, 40, 75-82 magnetohydrodynamics, 33 solar-dynamic w. solar cell, 15 see also Closed-cycle power systems; Open-cycle power systems Power subsystems, sec Subsystems Power transmission, 16 ground-based sources, 44-46 source-to-load relations, 12-13 Propulsion electric, 13 SDI applications to non-SDI missions, 15 storage of propellants, 32 Pulse generators, 65-66, 82, 88, 89 R Radar, 11-12 Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), 34, 37, 39 Radiators, sec Heat transfer and rejection Rankine cycle, 29 architecture systems, 52, 56, 58, 60, 62 defined, 24-25 dynamic power conversion, 40, 75, 76 solar power, 31 structural material needs, 63 Refractory materials, sec High-temperature materials Regulatory issues, Cc Statutes S Safety, nuclear systems, 30, 36-39, 40, 42, 43, 44 Semiconductors, 84 Sensors, 88 SDI effluent, effects on, 4, 22, 48, 50-51, 130, 131, 132 power requirements, 11, 16, 90 Skylab, 30 SNAP-1OA, 34, 36, 40 Solar power, 30-32, 88, 95 battle alert mode, 2 139 civil missions, 14-15 gas turbines, 75-76 insulation, 38-39 non-SDI military missions, 13-14 Soviet Union, ~ nuclear reactors in space, 34, 38 SP-100, 2, 4, 40-42, 43, 76, 88-89, 93, 99, 100, 132-133 thermal management, 28, 70 Space plasma solar power systems and, 30-31, 48, 49, 51, 127 Space Plasma Experiments Aboard Rockets (SPEAR), 48, 51 Space Power Architecture System (SPAS), 3, 19, 52-63, 66-67, 89, 122, 125, 130, 132 dynamic power conversion, 75, effluents, 26, 28 free-electron lasers, 11, 122 mass/weight issues, 12, 21, 34 open-cycle systems, 4050 Space Shuttle, 32, 50, 121-122, 125-128 Space Station, 8, 31, 56, 75-76, 99, 130 Statutes Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 38-39 National Environmental Policy Act, 4, 44, 132 nuclear reactors in space, 38 Outer Space Treaty, 38 Stirling cycle, 24-25, 31, 40, 41 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), sec Alert mode; Burst mode; Housekeeping mode Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), 79, 87, 91 budget, 87-88, 91-99, 131 integrated power technology, 16, 27-28 SP-100, 40, 92 studies, goals and methods, 6-7, 19, 34, 53, 58, 63, 90 survivability requirements, 5, 21, 134 Structural materials, 63 Subsystems, 19-20, 52-63, 66, 129 Superconductors, 4, 72-75, 77, 78

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140 high-temperature, 64-65, 74, 82 magnetic energy storage, 74-75, 89, 90 Surveillance, 13 Surveillance, Acquisition, Tracking, and Kill Assessment, 9-10, 12 Survivability, 9, 17, 19, 20-22, 23, 48, 85, 99, 131-132 high-temperature applications and, 85 non-SDI military missions, 13 radiators, 71 SDIO requirements, 5, 12, 134 solar power systems, 31 SPAS studies, 53, 66, 130 . Symposium on Space Nuclear Power Systems, 43 T Tantalum, 75 Thermal management, 4, 17, 85, 97 heat transfer and rejection, 13, 16, 24, 28, 29, 42, 63, 68-72 Thermal storage, 15 Thermionic systems, 41, 52, 58 Thermodynamics closed and open systems, 17-lg, 24-25 heat transfer and rejection, 13, 16, 24, 28, 29 INDEX Thermoelectric power, 25, 41, 70, 76 Titan Rocket, 32 Tracking, 9, 10, 12, 13, 88 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, 38 TRW, Inc., 53, 57 Turbine technology, 22, 24, 28, 29, 31, 32, 52, 53, 57, 60, 75-76, 77, 29 U United Nations, 38 Universities, 79 USSR, Cc Soviet Union V Vulnerability, 5, 19-22, 23, 131-132 ground-based systems, 45 radiators, 71 solar power systems, 31 W Westinghouse, 77 White Sands Missile Range, 12