of hormone secretion and immune responses, as well as many other physiological functions.

Commuting: the period of time and the activity required of pilots from leaving home to arriving at the domicile (airport—in the crew room, dispatch room, or designated location at the airport) and from leaving the domicile back to home.

Crash pads: temporary living arrangements shared among groups of pilots.

Crew pairing: a flight duty period or series of flight duty periods assigned to a flight crew member which originate or terminate at the flight crew member’s home base.2

Crew Resource Management (CRM): the application of procedure and training through a team management system designed to address the challenge of optimizing the human/machine and human/human interfaces. Includes all groups routinely working with the flight crew who are involved in decisions required to operate a flight safely.

Deadhead transportation: transportation of a crew member as a passenger, by air or surface transportation, as required by a certificate holder, excluding transportation to or from a suitable accommodation.3

Deadheading: term used when travel is provided to members of a flight crew in order to position them appropriately for duty. According to FAA regulations, deadheading is considered to be part of their work, or duty time.

Domicile: the airport where a pilot begins and ends a duty period.

Duty: any task, other than long-call reserve, that a crew member performs on behalf of the certificate holder, including but not limited to airport/ standby reserve, short-call reserve, flight duty, preflight and postflight duties, administrative work, training, deadhead transportation, aircraft positioning on the ground, aircraft loading, and aircraft servicing.4

Duty period: a period that begins when a certificate holder requires a crew





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