and led the Operational Factors Division (responsible for flight operations, air traffic control, and meteorology investigations). At NTSB, he also served as the flight operations investigator for major cases, including the USAir B-737 accident in Pittsburgh and the ValuJet DC-9 accident in the Everglades, and he managed flight crew human factors research projects. He holds an airline transport pilot certificate with type ratings for the Boeing 777, Boeing 737, Embraer 120, and Dornier 228. He received an A.B. summa cum laude in economics from Harvard College.

J. Lynn Caldwell is a senior research psychologist for the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, currently stationed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. Previously, she was with the U.S. Army’s Aeromedical Research Laboratory, where she conducted numerous simulator and in-flight investigations on fatigue countermeasures and circadian rhythms in rated military pilots. She has also been a member of the Warfighter Fatigue Countermeasures Program and a distinguished visiting scholar at the U.S. Air Force Academy. She has served as a fatigue consultant for various U.S. Air Force commands and other military and civilian groups. She frequently provides fatigue management workshops, safety briefings, and training courses to aviation personnel, flight surgeons, commanders, and safety officers. She is certified as a sleep specialist by the American Board of Sleep Medicine. She received a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Southern Mississippi.

David F. Dinges is a professor and chief of the Division of Sleep and Chronobiology and director of the Unit for Experimental Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry and associate director of the Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. He also leads the neurobehavioral and psychosocial factors team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. His research focuses on the physiological, neurobehavioral, and cognitive effects of sleep loss, disturbances of circadian biology, and stress, and the implications of these unmitigated effects on health and safety. He has been president of the U.S. Sleep Research Society and of the World Federation of Sleep Research and Sleep Medicine Societies, and he has served on the board of directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the National Sleep Foundation. He is currently editor-in-chief of Sleep. His awards include the 2004 Decade of Behavior Research Award from the American Psychological Association and the 2007 NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. He has an A.B. in psychology from Saint Benedict’s College, an M.S. in physiological psychology from Saint Louis University, an honorary M.A. from the University of Pennsylvania, and a Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Saint Louis University.



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