the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy, and other government agencies in the areas of advanced materials and alternative energy. Prior to forming ValTech Solutions, LLC, in December 2007, Dr. Browning served as a program manager in the Defense Sciences Office (DSO) at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). During her tenure at DARPA, she assumed full responsibility for the strategic planning, operating management, and leadership and development of multiple DOD research and development programs providing innovative technologies in power and energy, radar, telecommunications, and biotechnology for diagnostics, therapeutics, and chemical and biological warfare defense. Specific programs that Dr. Browning managed include the MetaMaterials, Palm Power, Direct Thermal to Electric Conversion, Negative Index Materials, Robust Portable Power Systems, and BioMagnetic Interfacing Concepts Programs. She also served as the DARPA liaison to the DOD Integrated Product Team on Energy Security and served as acting DSO director prior to her departure from government service. In addition to her time at DARPA, Dr. Browning spent 16 of her 24 years of government service as a research physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory. Her primary areas of research were thermoelectric materials, high-temperature superconductors, and magnetic oxide materials. When leaving her government position, Dr. Browning was awarded the Secretary of Defense Award for Outstanding Public Service. She has published more than 40 peer-reviewed manuscripts including three book chapters. She is active in a number of professional organizations including the American Physical Society, the Materials Research Society (MRS), and Sigma Xi. Dr. Browning served as co-chair for a 2007 MRS symposium on magnetic materials and was the technical program committee chair for the 2008 Fuel Cell Seminar. She continues to serve on the Technical Program Committee for the Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition and was appointed a member of the National Materials Advisory Board in 2009. Additionally, she served as a committee member on the recently completed National Research Council report entitled Seeing Photons: Progress and Limits of Visible and Infrared Sensor Arrays.

Christopher Garrett (NAS) is the Lansdowne Professor of Ocean Physics at the University of Victoria. His background is in applied mathematics and fluid dynamics. His research emphasis has been primarily on theoretical studies of small-scale processes such as waves, tides, turbulent dispersion and mixing, air-sea interaction, and the dynamics of flows in straits. His research highlights include the following: discovery of the conservation of wave action, or energy divided by intrinsic frequency, rather than energy; explaining the world’s highest tides in the Bay of Fundy in terms of resonance at 13.3 hours of the Fundy/Maine system; providing simple models for the ubiquitous internal waves in the ocean; unraveling some of the hydraulics of the exchange flow through the Strait of Gibraltar; using the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea as test basins for learning about air-sea fluxes; and finding simple ways of understanding the complicated fluid dynamics of turbulent, rotating, stratified motions near the sloping sides of ocean basins. He has also contributed to assessments of the oceanic disposal of radioactive and other wastes and to issues of ocean energy, such as the prediction of iceberg trajectory for the Canadian offshore oil industry and the derivation of fundamental limits to tidal power as well as evaluation of its environmental impact. Dr. Garrett holds B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in physical oceanography from the University of Cambridge. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.



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