Click for next page ( 2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 1
Consumer Health Information Technology in the Home A GUIDE FOR HUMAN FACTORS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

OCR for page 1
Every day, in households across the country, people engage in behavior to improve their current health states, recover from disease and injury, or cope with chronic, debilitating conditions. Innovative computer and information systems may help these people manage health concerns, monitor important indicators of their health, and communicate with their formal and informal caregivers. Designers and developers can help change the face of health care at home by creating appropriate consumer health information technology (IT) applications. This guide introduces designers and developers to the practical realities and complexities of managing health at home. It provides guidance and human factors design considerations that will help designers and developers create consumer health IT applications that are useful resources to achieve better health.

OCR for page 1
What is the purpose of this guide? • T help designers and developers create consumer health IT o applications that are easy to use by people with a wide range of life situations. • T assist home health professionals in selecting tools to o complement professional home health care services. What is covered in this guide? • An overview of health and health care at home, including who is involved and what they do; • Encouragement to create new kinds of consumer health information technologies to help people reach their health goals; and • Strategies to make consumer health information technologies more acceptable and useful to people with different life situations. Who should use this guide? • Software designers, • Hardware and device designers, • Product marketing teams, • Information systems staff in health care organizations who want patients to make use of their portals, and • Home health professionals responsible for selecting health tools for patients to use. What are some examples of consumer health information technologies? Examples range from common applications, such as • In-home monitoring, disease management, and self-management systems; • Online forums on health topics; and •Telemedicine and health-related Websites; to new tools for a health future, such as • “Aware” refrigerators, which keep track of the food stored within, expiration dates, and nutritional guidelines and can also suggest menus or provide warnings about food allergies; • Smartphones that deliver health-promoting text messages; and • Mobile devices that track nutritional balance. 3

OCR for page 1
A simple way to think about human factors and health at home Human factors is an engineering science dedicated to understanding and improving the way people use technology and other things in the environment. A graphical model created by Czaja and Nair for the National Research Council (2011) depicts the key elements of health at home and the human factors considerations related to each one. At the core are three As designers and circles, representing people engaged in tasks using certain kinds of equipment or technol- ogy. This triad is embedded in ever-expanding environments, beginning with the physical developers create layout of the house, the social structure of people’s relationships with their friends and fami- new consumer lies, the community where they reside, and the health policy context, which influences the type of health services available and the presence (or absence) of funding for care, home- health information based technologies, and care personnel. As designers and developers create new consumer technologies for the health information technologies for the home, they need to consider how each innovation will help a person doing related tasks in these environments. home, they need to consider how Person(s): each innovation Patient / Care Provider(s) (formal or informal): • Age, Education will help a person • Gender • Ethnicity • Self-Efficacy doing related • Health Status • Socioeconomic Status • Knowledge and Skills tasks in these • Communication Skills • Technical Competence environments. • Health Literacy • Health Care Beliefs • Health Care Readiness Tasks Tasks: Figure: Model of Human Factors Figure 3-1.eps Home of Health Care in the bitmap--low resolution Source: National Research Council. (2011). Health Care Comes Home: The Human Factors. Committee on the Role of Human Factors in Home Health Care, Board on Human-Systems Integration. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and but some type has been replaced Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Adapted by Czaja, S.J., and Nair. S. from Czaja, S.J., Sharit, J., Charness, N., and Fisk, A.D. (2001). The Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE): A program to enhance technology for older adults. Gerontechnology, 1, 50-59. 4

OCR for page 1
Who is the consumer who will use consumer health IT? The purpose of consumer health IT applications is to improve people’s health and help them to act in ways that enhance their lives. T achieve this purpose, designers and developers o should understand that there are many types of people involved in achieving health in every- day living: • People who are well. These individuals engage in health practices in the home (e.g., eating well, scheduling regular health checkups, exercising) to maintain or improve their health state. • People who are ill or managing complex diseases. Half of all households have a resident with a health problem (e.g., a soldier returning with an injury, a child born with a congenital limitation, a well-functioning individual who takes medications to control a chronic condi- tion). These individuals are the most common users of many consumer health information technologies. • Kids. Such technologies as games for health or interesting Websites can guide kids, sick or well, in the process of making healthy choices or help them keep track of complex medi- cal regimens they need to sustain life. Designers and • People with disabilities. Such technologies as talking computers or motion-sensitive fau- developers should cets make everyday life easier for people with physical or cognitive limitations. understand that • People who are older. Today, 1 in 10 persons is over the age of 65; in 20 years, that num- there are many ber will grow to 1 in 8. Most older people have skills and strengths that can be enhanced by well-designed consumer health information technologies. Some individuals will use types of people these applications alone, others with the help of caregivers. involved in Not all consumer health information technologies will be used by people in the categories iden- tified above. Sometimes family, friends, or health professionals provide assistive care. Designers achieving health and developers should also keep these people in mind when creating new equipment and in everyday living. technologies: • Informal caregivers. As many as 36 million family caregivers or friends help others man- age their health and health care. Informal caregivers make meals, ensure on-time arrival to medical appointments, modify household layouts, and generally anticipate and act on the needs of the individual. • Formal caregivers. Formal caregivers serve as the source of professional guidance and intervention. Individuals may travel to visit a formal caregiver in a hospital or clinic or may communicate with them remotely. Each of these users (patient or caregiver) has characteristics (examples of which are pro- vided in the circle diagram) that influence how they manage health and that therefore dictate how consumer health information technologies should be designed to support them. 5

OCR for page 1
What equipment and technologies are used in the home? Technologies that help people understand and better manage health problems are fast becoming everyday objects in the home. Blood pressure meters and glucose monitors provide people with important information about their own health state and guide them toward healthy choices about medications and eating patterns. Many consumer health IT Care should be applications are developed for use with a computer, ranging from health-related Websites taken to design that help individuals better understand health conditions to game controllers and interfaces that engage people in exercise and mental challenges. High-tech devices that use complex equipment and networks of sensors and advanced appliances are also currently being built for home envi- ronments. For example, think of a carpet embedded with sensors that can tell if a person’s technologies that gait is normal or if he or she is becoming unsteady. Designers and developers will play a key fit into the home role in designing technologies that are responsive to the environmental attributes listed in the circle diagram. In this guide we use the term “devices” to refer to the full range of IT devel- environment and oped for consumer use in the home – including web interfaces, special purpose tools like can be used by lifting devices, and computer systems. people in many Care should be taken to design equipment and technologies that fit into the home environ- ment and can be used by people in many situations. Such equipment may consist of com- situations. puters or devices with embedded computer processors. In considering usability, designers must be both clever and visionary in order to choose the right • Size, • Portability, • Interfaces, • Software functionality, and • Hardware platform. In addition, designers and developers have to plan for • The amount of instruction the equipment requires, • The level of maturity of the product, • The extent to which instruction about how to manage the equipment is embedded in the equipment (system intelligence), • The demands for maintenance, and • The level of data security feasible in the system, because health information is highly confidential. 6

OCR for page 1
What tasks are conducted in the home? Tasks include all of the activities in which people participate to maintain or improve health. Individuals engage in a number of everyday tasks (characterized by the attributes in the circle diagram) in addressing their health and health care, which may be supported by appropriate design of equipment and technologies: • Self-monitoring. Self-monitoring includes paying attention to the cues of health in every- day living. This may be done informally (e.g., attending to one’s sensations while stretching in the morning) or systematically (e.g., monitoring blood glucose to ensure proper manage- ment of diabetes). Homes differ in • Self-care. Self-care activities are undertaken in collaboration with health professionals. important ways These may include taking medication, exercising to maintain muscle strength, or preparing appropriate meals. from hospitals and • Disease management. Disease management varies with the extent and severity of clinics, placing a health problem and may include following complex breathing treatments, changing special demands bandages, monitoring for signs of infection, or operating household objects safely when confusion or dementia limits judgment. It requires close coordination with health profes- on designers sionals and many times also requires specialized equipment. and developers • Communication. Communication activities can range from informal, day-to-day conversa- to incorporate tions with a close family member to deliberate the next course of action, to coordination of complex care activities after a major accident. Communication with health providers, appropriate for example, sending a series of blood pressure readings to evaluate the effects of a new medicine, is also very important and could benefit from good design. features into their designs. What are the relevant characteristics of the home and its environment? Homes differ in important ways from hospitals and clinics, placing special demands on de- signers and developers to incorporate appropriate features into their designs. • Types of homes vary. In the United States, about 79 million homes are detached single- family houses, 28 million are multifamily suites, 5 million are duplexes, and 9 million are mobile homes. • Not everyone lives in a private home. Many people are transient because of their work or economic situation, and approximately 3.5 million people (including 1.35 million children) are likely to experience homelessness in their lifetime. • Homes have characteristic living spaces. Living rooms often serve as common gather- ing spaces for family members and friends. Kitchens and dining rooms are locations for 7

OCR for page 1
meal preparation and sharing. Bedrooms and bathrooms are often considered the most private spaces of the home. Health-related activities can take place in any of these spaces, although they are more likely to be undertaken in the kitchen, bathrooms, and bedrooms. Designers therefore cannot count on an individual having a dedicated space in the home to use equipment or technology. The circle diagram depicts home spaces as a set of embedded environments. Note that the concentric circles in the model depict environments that not only influence people’s health state, but also can shape the technologies that help them manage their health and health care. • Physical environment. The physical environment is the relatively immutable infrastructure of a house. Physical characteristics include electrical infrastructure, spaces for public or private activities, and communication capabilities, such as telephone, Internet and television services, and storage resources. • Social environment. The social and cultural environments include the people who live in Given the large the home, as well as those who live elsewhere but are integral to the people living there, number of along with their ethnic, national, and religious identities. Social and cultural environments influence how health issues are addressed, who is in charge of health information, the considerations extent to which managing health problems is a private matter or a shared interest, and at- that may affect titudes toward health care technology and practitioners. appropriate • Community environment. The community environment includes the neighborhood that surrounds a household, including such characteristics as the accessibility of health care design, designers delivery services, the availability of public transportation, and the safety of public spaces. must learn to The designation of a neighborhood as rural or urban brings along with it connotations of the technical infrastructure that can support technologies in the home. Accessibility and balance these safety may drive how important such features as telemedicine are to an individual. considerations • Public policy environment. The public policy environment shapes the availability of the as they progress telecommunications infrastructure, privacy policies related to health data, and public support for health. Each of these may increase or diminish the self-reliance that home- through the design dwellers must have and the reliance they would be willing to place on consumer health process. information technologies in the home. Policies that permit or prohibit payment for specific items by health care payers, such as Medicare, in part determine the market feasibility of a device or technology. This guide addresses human factors issues; public policy issues are not discussed here. The following tables offer design guidance related to the dimensions of the user, the physical environment, and the social and community environments, which should be considered when creating consumer health information technologies. Considerations of the task being performed are interwoven into the guidance. Given the large number of considerations that may affect appropriate design, designers must learn to balance these considerations as they progress through the design process. 8

OCR for page 1
Person Understanding who is using health IT devices Users’ Types of Reasons for Effects of varying Design considerations varying varying varying abilities abilities to meet users’ varying abilities abilities abilities • Reasoning, • Age (e.g., older • Reduced ability to • Devices should be designed to Cognitive abilities decisionmaking, adults, children) process, comprehend, facilitate appropriate automatic memory function, and integrate health responses by taking advantage • Education attention capacity information of affordances (cues built into the device) and appropriate • Head trauma • Reading and • Difficulties with mapping (relationship between language decisionmaking control and resulting action) • Disease (e.g., comprehension Alzheimer’s disease) • Difficulties with • Devices should provide • Numeracy skills executing the feedback to users and be • Illness (e.g., appropriate response tolerant of user error dementia) • Health and • Difficulties with learning technology • Interfaces should be consistent • Side effects of literacy and remembering step- throughout a single device and medication by-step procedures across devices • Stress • Reduced ability • Content should be presented to comprehend • Learning disabilities as simply as possible instructions • Developmental • Increased need for disabilities assistance 9

OCR for page 1
Person (continued) Users’ Types of Reasons for Effects of varying Design considerations varying varying varying abilities abilities to meet users’ varying abilities abilities abilities Physical • Strength • Age (e.g., older • Reduced gross motor • Devices should require abilities (amount of adults, children) movements (reaching, minimum physical effort weight user can shifting the body) • Disease (e.g., • Devices should be operable lift) arthritis) • Difficulties with moving from a neutral body position • Reach (how from one location to • Injury • Devices should require high, low, or far) another minimal force, repetitive • Limb tremor • Flexibility • Declines in strength action, and sustained physical and stamina effort for operation • Movement initiation • Finger dexterity disorders (e.g., (gripping) • Difficulties in lifting • Devices should be Parkinson’s or moving heavy customizable to accommodate • Mobility (e.g., disease) equipment variations in anthropometric walking with measurements, such as • Genetic or without • Reduced ability to height, reach, and grip size, abnormality assistance, in grip objects or open and ranges of motion, such wheelchair) containers as finger dexterity, neck • Limb amputation movement, and walking • Stamina • Reduced walking distance (physical speeds exertion) • Devices that are meant • Reduced stability and to be portable should balance be lightweight, easy to disconnect/disassemble, and • Reduced ability to easy to grasp execute movements precisely or operate controls Sensory or • Visual • Age • Difficulties seeing or • Devices should be perceptual reading content customizable to account • Auditory • Injury abilities for diverse sensory and • Difficulties hearing perceptual abilities (e.g., • Tactile • Illness alarms or instructions volume controls, font size, line spacing) • Olfactory • Disease • Difficulties distinguishing among • Devices should be flexible • Environmental smaller buttons and use redundancies (e.g., factors (e.g., noise visual, auditory, tactile signals) from highway or so that people with different neighbors, glare abilities and needs can use from sunlight) them properly and effectively 10

OCR for page 1
Physical Environment Understanding the home where health IT devices are being used Varying Types of varying Reasons for Effects of Design considerations physical physical varying physical varying physical to meet the varying environmental environmental environmental environmental physical environmental aspects of the aspects aspects aspects aspects of users home • Space to use • Age of home • Increased • Employ layout templates to Layout of the home devices, store crowdedness help users choose space • Size of home (square recordings, and wisely • Reduced space for footage) dispose of trash • Provide storage containers device placement • Design of home (e.g., • Clean storage and device storage for the device and its ranch, two-story) space for the attachments to reduce space • Devices may be device and its requirements during storage • Floor plan (proximity of placed out of reach attachments different types of living • Create devices that are • Increased likelihood spaces) • Width of doors and durable, waterproof, easily of electrical hallways cleaned • Cleanliness of home shortages • Height of cabinets • Minimize the power demand • Socioeconomic status • Devices may be of devices through the use of family • Electricity (outlet used in unintended of long-acting batteries or location, voltage, locations chargers i.e., 110 vs. 220) • Recognize that many homes lack grounded outlets and design packaging labels that alert consumers to the need for grounding 11

OCR for page 1
Social and Community Environments Understanding the social and community environments in which health information technologies are being used Varying Types of varying Reasons for Effects of Design considerations to social and social and varying social varying meet the varying social and community community and community social and community environmental environmental environmental environmental community aspects aspects aspects aspects environmental aspects • Children • Different family • Choking hazards • Devices should be designed to be Nonusers in the home structures portable for both private and shared • Adults • Tripping hazards use and easy storage • Visitors • Aging adults • Electrical • Devices should be cordless or have • Caregiving hazards minimal cord exposure • Pets • Preferences of home • User may feel • Devices should build in fail-safe • Caregivers owner self-conscious options (e.g., immediate cutoff of or embarrassed power when device is immersed in • Other individuals liquid) with limiting • May cause user cognitive, physical, to withdraw • Devices should be sold with or perceptual from socializing appropriate storage and casings for abilities in home small parts and fragile hardware • Reduced user • Devices should contain stands that privacy are sturdy and not easily toppled • Devices should be inconspicuous and blend into the rest of the home • Devices should allow for both private and shared use (e.g., screens with the option of being visible only from specific angles) 14

OCR for page 1
Social and Community Environments (continued) Varying Types of varying Reasons for Effects of Design considerations to social and social and varying social varying meet the varying social and community community and community social and community environmental environmental environmental environmental community aspects aspects aspects aspects environmental aspects • Stress • Illness • Lack of social • Devices should provide easy-to-use Family dynamics support control over privacy settings • Cohesion • Disability • Stigma and • Devices’ menus and choices should • Power structure • Competing demands shame be simplified • Communication • Age of family • Expectations for • Devices should offer a variety of patterns development privacy interaction and communication modes • Burden of • Devices should be lightweight and caregiving portable • User as caregiver • Different family • Increased • Devices should require minimal Other responsibilities for others structures workload and time and effort for use stress that can • Work • Caregiving obligations • Devices should be lightweight and affect device for parents, children, portable with long battery life use • Child care neighbors, family, • Devices should be inconspicuous • Devices may friends • Driving for use in communal settings be used in • Household obligations locations other • Devices should be durable to (e.g., mortgage, rent, than the home withstand use on the go bills) • Devices may be • Cost of health care used in transit • Location of caregiving activities • Location of home • Proximity to health care system 15

OCR for page 1
Social and Community Environments (continued) Varying Types of varying Reasons for Effects of Design considerations to social and social and varying social varying meet the varying social and community community and community social and community environmental environmental environmental environmental community aspects aspects aspects aspects environmental aspects • Health insurance • Location of home • Missing needed • Devices should be easily portable Resources device with long battery life • Access to home • Socioeconomic status • Reduced help • Provide compatible training (e.g., care of family with heath care hands-on, verbal instructions, • Access to informal • Different family activities written instructions) caregivers structures • Lack of device • Provide effective technical support • Access to • Location of neighbors, use assistance through different media transportation family, friends • Reduced • Devices should be designed to • Access to device • Public transportation relationship facilitate use by taking advantage training options with health care of affordances (cues built into the providers device) and appropriate mapping • Access to device • Distance of home to (relationship between control and technical support health care facilities • Difficulties with resulting action) device use • Telephone and Internet • Devices should be tolerant of user connections to home • Negative error attitude toward device use 16

OCR for page 1
Why is culture important? Consumer health information technologies for the home should be designed to appropriately reflect the cultural context in which they will be integrated. Although “culture” is a broad term, in this guide it refers primarily to behaviors and beliefs that are shaped by identifica- tion with a racial, ethnic, nationalistic, or religious group. Cultural influences of this nature are embedded in the user and the user’s physical, social, and community environments. They shape design dimensions that include type of technology, content, functionality, interface, and related decisions, such as where in the home the technology may be used. Cultural con- siderations affecting design dimensions are incorporated in the discussion of users, physical environment, and social and community environment. It is important to remember that there are often differences within cultural groups as well as between them; it is therefore important to understand the specific users for which a technol- ogy is being designed and to avoid stereotyping. Users Language. In the United States, 47 million people do not speak English as their first language. The content and interface of a technol- ogy designed for the home must therefore reflect the appropriate language of its intended users. This requires moving beyond simple translation to ensuring that the idioms, metaphors, and concepts used in the content and interface of the technology are appropriate. Mental model of illness. Not all cultural groups espouse the beliefs of conventional Western medicine. The content of health information technologies designed for the home must be sensitive to different beliefs about the causes and treatments of illnesses. Similarly, not all cultural groups embrace all technologies as a partner in treatment or management. The type of technologies with which a tool is coupled should comport with the intended user’s cultural beliefs. Trust and power. Some cultural groups distrust the medical establishment. This distrust is born of historical events and is sustained by current practices and the persistence of racial and ethnic health care disparities. Consequently, it is particularly important that technology designed for individuals identifying with these groups is transparent (i.e., it should be clear who is seeing and using the patient’s information) and that its content has collaborative, not paternalistic, overtones. 17

OCR for page 1
Physical Environment Use of physical space. Cultural beliefs may influence how individuals use or share liv- ing spaces in a home. Such beliefs may shape, for example, what spaces are perceived as communal and private or the type of behaviors that are appropriate in each space (e.g., a bedroom also used for prayer may not be appropriate for certain health management tasks). In such cases, the use of portable devices may be appropriate, since they can be moved for use in appropriate locations. Social and Community Environment Care management. Cultural groups may differ as to how they expect their family, friends, neighbors, and other community members to be involved in their health and health manage- ment (e.g., who acts as a caregiver, what are the roles of formal and informal caregivers, how caregivers are expected to respond to the caregiving experience). Such differences should be accounted for when determining, for example, how to construct privacy and security options, how to facilitate such actions as delegating or sharing decisionmaking, and how to construct training options. This guide is designed to provide designers and developers of consumer health IT with insights about the home environment in which their devices will be used. The tables contained in the body of the guide and the checklist that follows may be used during multiple points in the design process, including both needs assessment and evaluation. The guide should supplement and shape rather than replace home visits conducted by designers and developers. 18

OCR for page 1
DESIGN CONSIDERATION CHECKLIST The checklist below can be used by designers and developers to design and redesign equip- ment and technology to better meet users’ needs and to better fit into the physical, social, and community environments in which health behaviors are performed. Complete? Design Considerations to Meet Users’ Varying Abilities (Yes: ✔ ) Cognitive Abilities Device is designed to facilitate appropriate automatic responses by taking advantage of affordances ■ (cues built into the device) and appropriate mapping (relationship between control and resulting action) ■ Device provides feedback to users and is tolerant of user error ■ Device interfaces are consistent throughout a single device and across devices ■ Content is presented as simply as possible (e.g., elementary reading level) Physical Abilities ■ Device requires minimal physical effort ■ Device is operable from a neutral body position ■ Device requires minimal force, repetitive action, and sustained physical effort for operation Device is customizable to accommodate variations in anthropometric measurements, such as height, ■ reach, and grip size, and ranges of motion, such as finger dexterity, neck movement, and walking distance ■ Device is portable, lightweight, easy to disconnect/disassemble, and easy to grasp Sensory or Perceptual Abilities Device is customizable to account for diverse sensory and perceptual abilities (e.g., volume controls, font ■ size, line spacing) Device is flexible and uses redundancies (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile signals) so that people with ■ different abilities and needs can use it properly and effectively 19

OCR for page 1
Complete? Design Considerations to Meet Varying Physical Environmental Aspects (Yes: ✔ ) of the Home Layout of the Home ■ Product contains layout templates to help users choose space wisely Device includes storage containers for the device and its attachments to reduce space requirements ■ when not in use ■ Device is durable, waterproof, and easily cleaned ■ Device minimizes power demand through the use of long-acting batteries or chargers Device contains packing labels that alert consumers to the need for grounded outlets when needed for its ■ operation Services to the Home ■ Device is useable both online and offline Device is designed to facilitate different ways of transferring data from the home to the health care ■ system (e.g., a device designed to be compatible with home printers) Device contains content that can be downloaded both with and without graphics or in simpler formats for ■ people with slow Internet connections ■ Device contains redundancies in the ways in which interactions can take place (e.g., email, chat, phone) Devices in the Home ■ Device requires minimal storage and space ■ Device is usable independent of other devices when possible ■ Device is compatible with different brands and models of other devices ■ Product information includes necessary technical requirements Home Environment Device is designed to withstand a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g., incorporates ■ backlighting) Device contains protection (e.g., covers, filters, surge protectors) to protect from dust, grease, ■ particulates, fumes, water, open flames, etc. 20

OCR for page 1
Complete? Design Considerations to Meet Varying Social and Community (Yes: ✔ ) Environmental Aspects Nonusers in the Home ■ Device is designed for both private and shared use ■ Device is cordless/has minimal cord exposure ■ Device has built-in fail-safe options (e.g., immediate cutoff of power when device is immersed in liquid) ■ Device is sold with appropriate storage and casings for small parts and fragile hardware ■ Device contains stands that are sturdy and not easily toppled ■ Device is inconspicuous and blends into the rest of the home Device allows for both private and shared use (e.g., screens with the option of being visible only from ■ specific angles) Family Dynamics ■ Device provides easy-to-use control over privacy settings ■ Device menus and choices are simplified ■ Device offers a variety of interaction and communication modes ■ Device is lightweight and portable Other Responsibilities ■ Device requires minimal time and effort for use ■ Device is inconspicuous for use in communal settings ■ Device is durable to withstand use on the go Resources ■ Device comes with compatible training (e.g., hands-on, verbal instructions, written instructions) ■ Device comes with effective technical support through different media Device is designed to facilitate use by taking advantage of affordances (cues built into the device) and ■ appropriate mapping (relationship between control and resulting action) 21

OCR for page 1
RELEVANT RESOURCES AND LINKS TO RESOURCES AVAILABLE ONLINE Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality http://www.ahrq.gov/ American Medical Informatics Association http://www.amia.org/ Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Computer Human Interaction http://www.sigchi.org/ Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/ Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel http://www.hitsp.org/ Home Care Technology Association of America http://www.hctaa.org/ Human Factors and Ergonomics Society http://www.hfes.org/ International Electrotechnical Commission http://www.iec.ch/ National Association for Homecare & Hospice http://www.nahc.org/ National Institute of Standards and Technology http://www.nist.gov/ University of Wisconsin–Madison Trace Center http://trace.wisc.edu/ 22

OCR for page 1
COMMITTEE ON THE ROLE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN HOME HEALTH CARE David H. Wegman (Chair), Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell; Sara J. Czaja, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Center on Aging, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine; K. Eric DeJonge, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC; Daryle Jean Gardner-Bonneau, Bonneau & Associates, Portage, Michigan; Michael Christopher Gibbons, Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute, Johns Hopkins University Center for Community Health; Laura N. Gitlin, Johns Hopkins School of Nursing; Judith Tabolt Matthews, Department of Health and Community Systems, University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing; Misha Pavel, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Science and Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University; P. Hunter Peckham, Donnell Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopaedics, Case Western Reserve University (resigned March 2010); Jon Pynoos, Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California; Robert M. Schumacher, User Centric, Inc., Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois; Mary D. Weick-Brady, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland (resigned April 2010); and Jennifer L. Wolff, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. This booklet is based on the National Research Council report Health Care Comes Home: The Human Factors (2011) and its complementary workshop summary The Role of Human Factors in Home Health Care (2010), produced by the Committee on the Role of Human Factors in Home Health Care, under the auspices of the Board on Human-Systems Integra- tion. It was written by Patricia Flatley Brennan, R.N., Ph.D., F.A.A.N.; Rupa Valdez, Ph.D. candidate, M.S.I.E.; and Joy Rodriguez, Ph.D. candidate, M.S.I.E, all from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Reports are available from the National Academies Press at (888) 624-8373 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area) or via the NAP Website at www.nap.edu. Funding for this project was provided under contract number HHSP23320042509XI, task order HHSP233200800004T, with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not reflect the official position of AHRQ or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Copyright © 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. A PDF of this work is available free to download for your personal use at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13205 23

OCR for page 1