survey, he asked students what level of money, freedom, equipment, and so on they expected to have in different kinds of careers, and many more students marked “Don’t know” when asked about start-ups and established firms than when asked about academia. “It could be that they don’t search it out because they don’t want to be in industry. [But] there is probably less information out there.”

Carnevale added that the U.S. Department of Education is supporting the development of an online system that will collect information on all transcripts of students, including those in college and graduate school, and connect that information to wage records supplied by every employer in America. Currently, in 26 states, a student in a Ph.D. program in physics can find out how many of last year’s graduates got a job, whether it was in physics, what their wages were, and the duration of their employment.

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