mandatory for new grants, so participants must comply if they want to receive MRC funding in the future.

Responding to questions about how the impact on policy is measured, Sloan explained that the Framework Program has attempted to study the impact of their projects on policymaking by questioning participants, but has not done citation analysis of policy documents. Viney said that the MRC has looked at where MRC research is cited, paying particular attention to which documents are more influential and tracking any resulting policy changes.

A workshop participant asked about the European Commission’s guarantee fund, where some money is held back until participants fulfill the requirements of the grant, and whether surveys must be completed in order to receive that money. Sloan said that it depends on how strongly the requirements are enforced, but that much of what is asked is voluntary.

In response to a question asking whether a clear policy is in place requiring researchers to acknowledge their funding when they publish a paper or develop a patent, Viney said that analysis of citations and publications is based on the most reliable data possible. He said that research councils in the UK do require a standard type of acknowledgement in publications, but that the MRC could potentially do a better job working with publishers and checking compliance. Santos added that in Brazil, there are policies for federal agency funding and some state funding, but there is room for improvement so that their system is able to capture exactly who funded what.

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