• The optimal amount of research for the United States as a percentage of GDP still has not been determined. Is it possible to overspend on R and D? To what extent should education be emphasized in that spending?


Finally, several speakers on the panel emphasized that scholars studying these issues should be humble, sensitive, and do no harm, which is a message Irwin Feller delivered at the beginning of the workshop. The returns on federal investments in research are extremely complex and occur within the context of a complex economy and society. Analysts should avoid claiming more for the utility of their work than is warranted.

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