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REFERENCES Bozeman, B., and D. Sarewitz. 2005. Public values and public failure in US science policy. Science and Public Policy, 32:119-136. Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Cutler, D., and Kadiyala, S. 2003. The returns to biomedical research: treatment and behavioral effects. In Measuring the Gains from Medical Research: An Economic Approach, edited by K Murphy and R. Topel, pp. 110-162. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Health Economics Research Group, Office of Health Economics, and RAND Europe. 2008. Medical Research: What’s It worth? Estimating the Economic Benefits from Medical Research in the UK. London: Evaluation Forum. Heidenreich, P., and McClellan, M. 2003. Biomedical research and then some: the causes of technological change in heart attack treatment. In Measuring the Gains from Medical Research: An Economic Approach, edited by K. Murphy and R. Topel, pp. 163-205. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lichtenberg, F. R., and Sampat, B. N. 2011. What are the respective roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutical innovation? Health Affairs 30(2):332-9. Manton, K., Gu, X., Lowrimore, G., Ullian, A., and Tolley, H. 2009. NIH funding trajectories and their correlations with US health dynamics from 1950 to 2004. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 106(27): 10981-6. Morlacchi, P., and Nelson, R. 2011. How medical practice evolves: the case of the left ventricular assist device. Research Policy, 40(4):511-525 Pardey, P. G., Alston, J. M., Christian, J. E., and Fan, S. 1996. Hidden Harvest: U.S. Benefits from International Research Aid. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. Roach, M., and Cohen, W. 2011. Patent citations as measures of knowledge flows from public research: a comparison with survey data from U.S. R and D labs. In preparation. Roach, M., and Sauermann, H. 2010. A taste for science? Ph.D. scientists' academic orientation and self-selection into research careers in industry. Research Policy, 39(3):422-434. 89

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90 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH Sampat, B. N., and Azoulay, P. 2011. The impact of publicly funded biomedical and health research: a review. (See Appendix D) Stevens, A. J., Jensen, J.J., Wyller, K., Kilgore, P.C., Chatterjee, S. and Rohrbaugh, M.. 2011. The role of public-sector research in the discovery of drugs and vaccines. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364(6):535-541. Toole, A. A. 2007. Does public scientific research complement private investment in research and development in the pharmaceutical industry? The Journal of Law and Economics, 50(1):81-104. Ward, M., and Dranove, D. 1995. The vertical chain of research and development in the pharmaceutical industry. Economic Inquiry, 33: 70-87.