• Hazard identification—which requires determining whether exposure to a particular environmental agent has the potential to increase the incidence of an adverse health effect and, for particular exposure conditions, which agents can lead to adverse effects, thus requiring follow-up through dose–response or exposure-response analysis; and
  • Exposure–response/dose–response or toxicity assessment—which quantifies the relationship between the exposure or dose in humans and the incidence of adverse effects or health outcomes in human populations or laboratory animals; and Risk characterization—which synthesizes and integrates data and information to develop a quantitative estimate of the incidence of the effect in a given population, along with a discussion of related qualitative considerations, strengths, limitations, and uncertainties.

This report is organized around the assessment process with modifications to address the specific issues raised in the statement of task. As shown in Figure 3-2, the process focuses first on research and data collection related to exposures at JBB, health effects that might result from those exposures, and health outcomes in other human populations exposed to some of the environmental agents found in ambient samples and potentially emitted by the JBB burn pit. Based on this information, assessments are then made on potential exposures and health effects that might occur in relevant populations. Rather than conduct a formal, quantitative risk assessment and risk characterization, the committee prepared a synthesis and summary of key findings and applied that informa-


FIGURE 3-1 Elements of the risk assessment paradigm.
SOURCE: Adapted from NRC (1983, 2009).

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