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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Grant No. NRC-04-09-153, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Grant No. RA133R-09-SE-4232, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NNX10AK53G. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-21768-2
International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-21768-7

Cover photos: (top) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (bottom) California Department of Water Resources. Cover design by Sharon Martin.

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