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ro- ra- las ese -all hat rry THE NLAGNITUDE OF THE PROGRANI be INTRODUCTION This report recommends a program for constmction of -facilities that will utilize ùre versatile, relatively low-cost methods of grounil-based astronomy to cârry out the large {raction of the observations of the-universe tìat can be done through thã atmosphere, and thus to mâintâin the proper balarrce between the u-nique capabilities of insÛuments carried into space and the capabilities of tlðse opãratecl on tle surface of the earth. The total cost for thå ten-year progrum is less than the ûrst ûve years of that part of the Space Administration's orbiting obserwatory program devoted to stellar astronomy and to radio astronomyl These orbiting observatories are, of course, only a small part of the wúole space efiort' The annual spending rate for the o"* groLd-b^r"d facilities proiected in.tle previous section of this report ls of ihe order of one haff of t per cent of tlre present total annual buclget of the National Aeronautics and Space ,{dministration' Since astronomers represent a small fraction of the physical scientists in the country, however, iì is appropriate to ask whether the grourrd-based facilities recoÁmeodetl ,"pt"tÀt a sharp acceleration in tìe next decade or are in line with growth rates already established or in sight' In the case of ãptical astronomy, whe¡e there has been a long perioil of growth while the Unitecl States was establishing its dominant position in of science, it is possible to give a rough quantitative ansr¡/er to Ihi, "r"" ,fr" -q"ltlt ih" b"rt rittgi" ittdex of tÈe nation's òapability in observational optical'astronomy wodd ãppear to be the collecting area oJ all its research ;å".-p";. The'necessary'ãata have been taken from the Appendir of Kuiper^anil Middlehurst's ?¿lescopes (lJniversity of Chicago Press' 1960)' Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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wíth a few additions fo¡ instruments completed since Ig60. In Figure 20 is show¡ the integrated area of all telescopes of 24-inch aperture or larger in the United States. Accumulated totals at intervals of ûve to ten years are plotted. In the same ûgwe is shown the breakdown for the size cate- gories (large, medium, anil small) as used in Section III and in ttre recom- mendations of this report. Here each point represents tìe new total after ailding tïe telescopes completed in a given year. At the right side a hypo- thetical point is plotted on each of the graphs, showing how the collecting area ín each of the four cases would stand in 1976 if all the recommendations of the PaneÏs report were completeþ implemented by that time. In no case is tlere any marked increase over the growth rate that has been estab- Iished over previous decades. Implementation of the Panel's recommenda- tions will do little more tÏan keep up with the general trend, which indicates a doubling of the total collecting area each 15 years. Because there has been a slackening in the growth rate over tÏe last 15 years, it is necessar¡ however, to compress about 15 years of normal growth into the next decade. It will be noted that this long-term trend was established when the number of asfuonomers in the country was growing less rapidly than is now shown to be the case in the manpower survey in Section II ( page 28 ) . The manpower growth rate previously shown in Figure 18 (page 3I) is repro- duced at the top o{ the telescope-area graph in Figure 20. At the right edge is shown ttre range of the expected number of U. S. members of the Inter- national Astronomical Union in 1973, based on the projection of Table 2 (page 86), and tle assumption that the ratio between the number of U. S. astronomers, as deûned in Section II, and the number of U. S. members of the International Astronomical Union will continue to be about 3:2. The slope of this portion of the plot indicates a doubling of manpower ín nine or ten years and increases more steeply than the proiected growth of the telescope collecting area in any size category. In summary, then, tìre optical facilities recommended by the Panel would appear to be reasonable and prudent. It should be noted that, even with full implementation of these ¡ecommendatíons, there will be fewer square feet of telescopic obiective per U. S. astronomer at the end of the clecade than there are now. And, even with some allor¡¡ance lor a slight reduction in tJre percentage of U. S. astronomers engaged in optical astron- omy, as interest in tleoretical ashophysics, radio astronomy, and space âsþonomy grows, the program is still based upon a straightforward proiec- tion. In view of the important contributions being made to the develop- ment of astronomy by obsewers with U. S. optical telescopes, to provide 72 È*. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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0ís :gef lars ate- 0m- fter ?o- ting ions .no tab- rda- ates ..{LLD>\20rNcrI has ary, . D=l00-200r^*crr "c- ade. the ftow The D=60-99üicn rt pro- dge e 36-59 rNcI¡ = D -." rter- le2 t. s. of :s The aine -a the anel )ven )\¡r'er the 1990 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 ight ron- lace Fígvte 20 riec- Cto@th oÍ total collecting area of U '5. oPtical telescopes sínce 7910, lnoíecte¿ to ìncfuãe facílì' ,lop- líes rccomnpnileil bg this îetort The gïouJth of the nunber of U S' mentbets in the 7úefi4' vide tional Asl¡onorÀìcal Union ìs shou:n lor co rytriton. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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tlan is recommended here would, in the opinion of the Panel, mean a Iess loss of momentum, and would constitute a retrenchment. There is no single index in radio astuonomy tlat represents tle grouncl- based observing potential in tÏe Unitecl States, particularþ since modem antenna systems consist of both arrays and paraboloids. The growth of the major U. S. facilities is bareþ a decade old, and no long-term trends or growtl rates can be said to have been established. The recommendations ãf the Pattel proposed a set of facilities demanded by the nature of the problems now faceil in this ffeld' These faciìities will create capabitties lor observational research commensurate wittr these tlemands, and quite beyond any yet provided. The manpower, the tecbniques, anil the engi- nelring competence for realizatíon of this goal are all in sight, but ade- quate support must be Provided. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS AND COSTS The cost of the program discusseil in Sections III and IV is established in this section. The proposeil program as laid out consists of the following items. Optical Astrorømy 7) Tlnee large telescopes of the 150'to-200-inch c1ass. The Peak 150-inch is consiclered as tlie trst of this group. $60.0 million Iiitt :) An engineering study for constluction of the largest reflector. $ 1.0 million feasible optical 3) Fo¿r intermediate-size telescopes of the 60-to-84-inch class' $ 4'o million 4) Eight small mode¡n telescopes of 36-to-48-inch aperture. $ 3.2 million Total cost of the optical facilities and engineering study is $68.2 million with no operating expense included, Included in these costs are funds for the initial instrumentation such as spectrographs, photometer, and specbum scanner with which to start ìi initiãl opeiations. Included also is the cost of site-development, land- 74 /-' L Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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acquisition, and building {or tIe case of items I ) and 3 ) above. The details ¡a of the cost breakdown and ttre budget per year to realize the goals are stated in the present section. ìil- )rû ' 'tre or Radín Astronomg )ns : 7) A very large high-resolution pencil-beam array witli ihe low sidelobes to be constructed ies faciiíty. as a national , úte Cost of basic dishes. $30.0 million Lgi- Cost of land development with buildings. $ 4.0 million Ce- $ 6.0 million Cost of electronics and other auxiliaries. cost $40.0 million Total 2J A high-resolution array consisting of about eight an- tennas to be constructed at the Owens Valley Observatory. $10.0 million paraboloids. 3) Two fully steerable 300-foot $16.0 million his 4) ms. Engineering study for the largest possible steerable para- antenna. $ L0 million bolic 5J Support for existing radio astronomy departments for new small instruments and special, unique problems. $30.0 million lion The total support for new radio instruments is then $97.0 million, with no annual support to maintain new facilitíes included. Iion : lion Auxilinrg lnstruments and Automntinn [íon 7) New auxiliary ínstruments for both optical and radio. $10.0 million lion 2,) of Data-processing instruments and automation tele- scopes. I $10.0 million uch The combined cost of recommendeil auxiliary instrrments and data- tart processing and automation equipment thus totals $20.0 million. rnd- ÈL- Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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ort O p er ating SUPP Anrunl Annual opemting support of new optical facilities at 1) a rate of 4 pei cent of the value of the facilities completed S million gi*" ti-". $ 5 "t ""y at a rate 2.) Amual operating support of new radio facilities the faeilities completed at oî 10 p"t cent of the value of $33'6 million time. any given support l-ras*trtoo Total operating The total cost of the entire ten-yeal program is thus $224'12 million' The detailed breakclown is shown and the budget per yeal for this program is 23, page 86' ) iustified in this section. ( See the cost curye in Figure BASIS. OF COST ESTIMATES AND PROT ECT ED SPENDIN G RAT E Facíliti,es Cost Esl ímntes Estimating the cost of large research instruments that have not yet been built is aãmittedly difRfllt' The Panel is well aware of the fact that the Êgures submitted in this Report may meet with- consi¡lerable skepticism' Sich iloubts are not surprising in view of the number of times that enthusi- astic proponents of new resáutch facilities in the physical sciences have seriouìIyìnderestimated the cost' Astronomical ventures have by no means been immune from this exPerience. Nevertheless the Panel has arrived at a set of cost estimates which it feels it can put forward with reasonable conûdence The principal reason for this conff-dence is the nature of the recommendations: the major facil- itíes, both ratlio anil optical, a¡e based on clesigns and components that have already been built, so tlat neither the feasibility nor the costs are in any great âoubt. The decision to recommend facilities o{ this nature for im- áediate constluction took into consideration both Lhe ¡esearch requirements bring observational ânswers to important -the type of instruments that will probleris-and the need to get new telescopes into the hands of üre under- 76 I i; Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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inst¡umented astronomical commulity in the shortest possible time. The recommended construction program should not only yíeld an optimum return f¡om the inveitment of available mânpower and funds, but should also be subject to minimum uncertainty in the cost estimates. Iion Radio and optical telescopes larger and more complicated than any yet built, which would ínvolve costs difficult to estimate at presen! have not been recommended for construetion within the ten-year períod; rather they have been reserved for consideration by study groups which will pro- llion vide not only a thorough-going feasibility analysis, but also detailed cost estimates. llion The cost evaluations for tlre instruments ¡ecommended in the coming ten-year period are based on the engineering experience of a member of the The Panel who has participated, either directly or as'an adviser, in the recent mis construction of large telescopes, both radio and optical. Through this experi- ence and a continuously updated record of the costs of telescope construc- tion elsewhere, he has assembled the cost survey data summarized in the Appendix to this report. The rapidly growing industrial experience in this highly speciaìized field has also provided a background of actual costs that is of great assistance in estimating and biddíng on ne\¡/ construction projects. Tables A and B of the Appendix list existing major astronomical facil- ities, both radio and optical (pages 90 and 96). In Tables C and D of the Appendix a¡e shown the best available data on basic instrument costs for ttrese facilities, in terms of 1963 dollars. The cost data are summarized feen graphicaþ in Figures 2L and 22, which show cost as a function of size for : tle optical telescopes and for radio astronomy paraboloids. :ism. The costs of optical telescopes {all remarkably close to a mean line husi- showing direct proportionality between cost and collecting area (diameter have squared). There is considerably more scatter for the radio astronomy .eans antennâs because some of the steerable paraboloids shown in Figure 22 were built for satellite tracking or communications purposes, where opera- it ch tion must be continued ulder extreme environmental conditions. The mean :ASOn line, showing cost varying as the 2.5 power of the diameter, passes through iacil- points representing dishes built to tlre tolerances acceptable in ¡adio astron- have omy, where the rapid and variable motions needed for satellite tracking are any not required, and where temporary shutdowns during high winds or icing : im- conditions are not serious. rents The estimated total construction costs of the recommended faciiíties rtant a¡e based on the accumulated data shown in Figures 2l and 22. The adop- rder- tion of a practical construction schedule then leads to a forecast of the year- Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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ffi ffi ii Tr DOLLÂN COST Df.IIUETERe fi I 500 r'flnRon Dr^rrlrTÈtl rNcûEs 200 100 50 t0 Fígøe 27 of apettuîe, in millions of .7963 clollars' The dat@ arc telesço?es as a Íunctíotu Zi"rt- "¡1ptx.l tnctuåe o¡ttícs, mounting' ancl tlome' Lantl costs' site rletel' í;;;;Lb1;'li'.i¿)i:ippendix)'and opment, aniL auúIiarll insttúfients a¡e not incluilecl' i-j Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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DOLLÀN COST DIÀMETSR2'6 TRACK ¡AD,{II ¡,AIJOIÍE I 500 ÄPER¡L'RE Dr^METER ¡EEf 900 100 10 of 1963 dolla¡s, frcm Table E a Íunctìoll of .líarneter, Ì'úllíons ítù atxtennas as èiíst" of steerulrle ndio ,e alata are ti.iO¿,,Ctro^¿ítl' ?a¡aboloícls ttaith atltle¿L construction leatuîes not orllinarilll neecled for 'astîon;¡n1J î site deuel' 7 7 for erPlanation' are núrketl øith a s¡tecíal sgmbol. See tert, Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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by the present furiling needeil through tle ten-year perioil coverecl to-year reDort. '"""iï"" produc- the astronomical program proposed involves multiple possible' the total facility uo" ãiå*irti"g types of basic iistirm"t'i' tih"t"u"t erms o unit cost' ;;t f;r """t iåe classiffcation can be tabulated in twitÏ a fbreakdown rfE i"Ui" S øu.. the total cost per unit or total facility A i"Iä fr.,ï,, ú"ri" and auxiliar| instrumentation costs of optical telescopes j ;;"t"as alreatly in operation or now under construction' In the ;J;"d" telescópe,, iiis necessary' of course' to make site suweys' ofì"tg" ;;;"q"# ""ä develop prãperty at nerv observing or the anil to construct ""." "p,ical sites' Northern Hemi- i-,,'iiai'"n. and facilitie; fòr supporting activjties' F .B be depe.dei"ì o' l"rg" industrial_facilities witfri¡ a rea- ;"#ä;;;; ,ã"iùL ¿i.*"* of thã site "hot""' Iio*"uer, a large teiescope in site the l the remote ;;;ã;" H;trphere would involve additional expensein{orable 3' ..j I i".ltri"t, ,hippiog, labor, ancl related costs, as noteil T I '*- 'iü ,""ãi¿ îortio" of Table 3 indicátes the corresponding roposed'f cost o p f""itiry lt"*. fo, ihe tht"" types- of radio telescope ínstn-rnents '--'ät; designs, procurement' and erection scheil- pt".toiog, "ngit "optiä *""i"uuui must be tlovetailed to equalize ",ioi or", ?oì rãrg" ,"ãio "ia manpower' afr" 1""¿ oi mannfacto.lrrg facilities antl available technical if* "r"",i""f fabrication aid constmction tímes for the optical telescope¡ i"g".rt* *l*t the proposed number of units involved' ;* tf,"t";ì;i;î, -basJ e*-pe'ience in the construction of oo ilt"."ft"¿ot" times are '""""i - -- similar facilities. itt" corresponiling estimates for fabrication time Tor tTable 4' aadio he large r half of long ã.ruy, ãr" indicateil in the second telescopes "nd with tlle corresponding scheilules for construction' Anrrunl Operating Support for Neu Facilities a schedule of funcling Before using the information in Table 3 to prepare- ;;;;-; ;;:y:; perioil, it is necessarv to inquire what allowanceround tbe must that.ltl $ow up a he ;;å" f* típ;"i, of the reseat"h ptág'"tnt institutions' inro*""",t as they are compllteã' Universities'- res-earch of oper- ""* wiú be reqrrieil to assume the added expense ""à ""ir""rf """ters ffiiih;,"*;g"'"rrd "o-pl"* å'""'"h tools in a rather short interval'radio The both .ltäi¿y ."t""i problem Jf annual support at all observatories' and unless ã"J"iu*r, *iI- b""o*" acute unlessìirere is advance planning flrodiig agâocies can anticipate the demanil' 80 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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fl Ë MN)RASTR)N)MICALTELESC2PESAoelegeCos.tPe¡lJniÍobseroatoryFaciliÍg sent ["r^u'u cosrs oF r.AcrrJrY-$ r'o-¡-ro¡ (1963) TorALs It iluc- Â1¡ER. I'NIT SITE-DEV' ,ility OTIIERCOST FAqI¡-ITS BI,DG. & Af'X' H BAsrco CON:¡INCENT COSÍ ETC. BEMOTE INSTBS. TELES. Ë,,* cost. I'¡.CILITY DESCRI¡TION B-- own Optícal Telþscopes üA $ 0.4 0.1 opes s 0.3 36 to 48" fot Uflío. Asttotl. DèPt. fir. 0.8 1.0 0.08 r the 0.12 60 to 84" lo¡ Good Obs. Unía. Sites 8.5 r8.5 2.0 r, :' 2.3 750 to 200" fo¡ Best Obs. Si|es: No Hemíß seys, 8.5 3.0 23.0 9.2 2.3 so. Hemì.s. truct !i Ë ,emi- Rad,io Telescopes Èa lt. fea- Hi sh-Resolutìon Pencil Beam Anaa, Multiple Units-N 4L'1. Facilítg r the 40.0 (Coú of enfire susteû¿) ¡ site AÐedure Sunthesß Mobìle Arrug ' M ltiple Uníls oÍ 130' SIeetuble at Exísling 1.25 o.10 Obs. Site, per unít st of FuIIg Stee¡abl'e 3OO' Patuboloii'| at Eristìig ,osed. 8.0 Obsercatotu S¿tes ched- sholnillg cost os' apeÍtuÌe fot ña'ior optlcal ' nlize anð, ¡ad.io telescoqes ower. copes AL coNSTnucrtoN-FABRICATtoN TIME FOR UNIT FACILITY s ASTRON OMIC ienß. ¡Ived. it '¡ on of lì PROPOSED SCIIEDULES coNsrR. TIME 1 CON6:cÀ. POSSIDLE "t*-oo 'I uNrrs (vB¡¡s) o" .o.r"t"" otr"uot ¡vr'us) radio along A Opt¿"ot Telescopes I I 2! Modem reflectors Dept gr8, Oaet 7st ì l. 36 to 48" Iot tJntu, Astrcn IJryerú earlv 2 in Ð atg. Sites 1 z. 4 4 60 Lo 84" îo¡ UníÐ. Obs Obs, ¡esearch 2 ìn nert 4 uÌs, I Eristíng d,esígns No'Hemis. 8i 7 geørs 2 lol BestObí ¡Ì1. Sites: 150 to 200" ¡3. 2nd, bg 7O gts. Síte and d,eoelop. Spread oaer 70 grs. 10 Lnding 1 So' Herniß' Fot Î$ture recom. Laltet Íeø !r8. 0 4 ust be )4. Larye Telescope Studg j rd the Rad,io Telescopes B I Extend.able øfi49 Co¡úínuing rtions, 9 High-Resofutìan Nafl. Pencil Alrag I .1. I Earlg need'; mooabl¿ 4 ìn 3 grs. 7.5! :2. ì oper- M ob ile Ste eøbla -lt. 1 30 pørøbolíc øraq 4 in nert 3 grs. [. The 7 ín 4l grs. Poltrír, and Parubolold' 4 300-ft. Steeruble I írL 6+ ltts, I radio Specttul studíøs i" Mas affect 300-ft. 4- unless Fitst feu uîs. Sûñ,v 4 Larye Telescope ) 81 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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A complete analysis of the operating costs of existing observatories is dificult beùuse suppot comes ftãm many sources and is accounteil for in many difierent *uy* Sio"" tìe impact will be greatest upon those having to operate the larglst new facilities, it will be su-fficient to use a formula for .opport costs based on tle experience of the larger re- comluting "rron"I alreaily-in operation. A¡r examination oI the known annual ,""råh ""it"r, operating costs of the ûve oì six largest observatoríes i'.' this country shows tlìat theiatlo of the annual cost to ttre 1963 estimated capital value of the facility falls in a remarkably n¿urow lânge between 2 5 and 3'5 per cent' ioo, other recent iarge telescope proposals have also intlicated ir, "í¿i operating support t"ogiog fto- 3.5 to 4'75 per c€nt of the total annual propor"df""ility vatuã. ¡ correlaied experience may also- be noted; many iarg:" unirrersity anil college campus building programs show annual oper- atiig costs for iaboratory building and facilities runningfrom 3'5 to 4'5 per th" to,"I plant välue. It appears adequate, thereforg to recommend ""rriofor the adàitions to established optical observatories, the allowance that, f for ánnual operation of newly completed facilities be set at 4 per cent of the construction cost. On the other hand, experience with large radio telescopes clearly indi- cates a very clifierent set ofannual operating costs, involving a much higher percentage of construction costs; the range is from about 10 per cent to, io ,orn" ã"r"r, over 28 per cent of the value of the faeility' These higher opeÉting costs arise from the special nature of the facilities and the peculiar oi"rati"! problems of raclio obse¡vatoríes. Al arbitrary examination of tËe parti-cJar facilities recommended in this report indicates that a 10 per c"J fo.mola for amual operation would be justited' This rate is two or tlree times higher than that fôr the corresponding optical observatories because: (1) the radio obServatories are growing, arrd operating costs are hígh on nù iacilities; (2) advances in electronic teclïdques make for rapid ob"solescence of auxiliary equipment, such as receivers, and frequent replace- ment is necessary; (3)'most iadio observatories are much further removed fiom university óenters than are optical observatories, with corresponclingly higher travel ánd operating costs; (4) at radio obserwatories work is carried oti both d"y and night, with higher costs for double crews; (5) antenna systems cover t *o"lt htg"t property area, with higher road antl grounds maintenance costs, and higher communication costs' It should be emphasized tlat the percentage figures adopted here for the annual operating ( "housekeeping') cost of new facilities cover only the added technical cosis such as operating and maintenance personnel, scien- 82 "t ø Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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þs is tiffc and maintenance supplies, and data-processing and computer charges. or in They do not include salaries of academíc or scienti.ffc stafi, support of .grad- uate students, or otler progtam-cost items such as scientiffc libraries. In r.ing various institutions the latter costs may be divideal in so many ilifierent ¿ for ways between old and new telescopes, between observational anil non- )r re- observational research, and between teaching and research, that ít would rnual hows be dificult to ârrive at a universal formula. Since the assígnecl task of tìe Panel has been to consider the npu ,f the facilities that will be needed in the next ten years, it has not attempted to cent. examine the total problem of the support of astronomical teaching anil cateil research in the Uniterl States. Thus the ffgures presented here should not total be construed as representing the total government support neealed by Amer- many ican astronomy. The problem of annual support is being consiilered by oper- .5 per a panel of the Physics Survey Committee, appointed by the National Acad- emy of Sciences to make a long-range study of physics and its requirements. mend According to the estimates of the Physics Surwey panel, the total sup- va'J3e port cost, including small project facilities, is between $10 million and $20 of the million ¿ year witl tle present physical plant. Since ou¡ recommendations will approúmately ilouble the existing facilities and will accommodate ¡ lnor- n""tly t*i"" the number of astronomers by the end of the decade, it may righer be assumed that the total support cost will also approximately double if the )nt to, same unit cost per astronomer prevails. Thus, ttre technical ("housekeep- higher ing") costs shown in Table 5 constitute approximately one half of the total :culiar ' ion of additional operating cost needed to support tÏe scientific programs to be cauied by tÏe new facilities. Untloubtedly these costs will continue to be 10 per ' divided beween normal university budgets and feileral grant monies. iwo or atories Spend.i,ng Rate sts are The unit costs for new facilities from Table I antl the construction sched- r rapíd ules from Table 4 are combined in Table 5, anil tÏe growth of annual oper- , :place- ating costs is computed according to the 4 per cent and 10 per cent formulas .moved adopted in the prevíous section. This table Shows the spending rate for con- rclingly struction of each type of facility and also the accumulated value of all the carried facilities completed at the end of each year of the program. The latter ffgure .nteûìa is used for calculation of the corresponding annual operating support that . ;rounds will be needed as the new instruments go into actual research operation. In addition to the spending for tÏe major facilities and for their operat- ' rere for ing support as they are completed, the total spending rate must take into ,nly the account other parts of the over-all recommended program' These costs are [, scien- á Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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MTLLTON ANNUÁL OPERATTNG çOFT OF NEW FACTLTTLES-í 5 TABLE Based, on C otlstruc'tion Sched'ul'e Optícøl ç 3.2 60.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 I. 8 0.8 36/48" TelPs' 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2. 4 60/84" Teles. Site: 3. 3 150/200" Best r8.5 18.5 Hømís' N o' So'Eemís - 23.O - 42'5 67'2 0.0 0.4 0.8 7.4 o'4 1'4 o'4 r9 9 Value ol geør's addítìon to co ûryl.eted lacíLiÍi¿s o.o 0.4 7.2 2'6 3.0 44 4'8 24'7 247 67'2 Aacutwlated' aahre oÍ completed' løcílitíes Annu,I operatínesuppoft at o.o 016 o.o4| 0'104 0'120 0'176 o'1g2 og88 0988 9688 5'3 B ßødío 5.0 5.0 5.0 TA) 5.0 5.0 5.0 40.0 1.0 0'0 5.0 Atøg 7 4'O 1. Pencíl-Beam 7.25 2.50 2.50 10.0 1-25 2.50 Aîraa I 1 0'0 2. Aût. Mobìle 16.0 B.0 80 2 3. 300-ft. Steerable o'o 4'0 6.25 7.50 15.Ë0 7.50 6-25 5.0 13.0 1.0 66.0 value ol leois add'iti'otu to pt"iuâ ¡oavu"t "o Acaumulatød oalue of com' 0'o 4'o 10.25 17.25 33.25 40.75 47.00 52.00 65.00 66.00 fac¡I¡t¡es iiiied Annual o\eiating flPPoft at 00 0'40 1.025 1.775 3.325 4.075 4.700 5.200 6 500 6'600 33'6 tO9¿ rrtte" t. 0.0 0.416 7.073 1.879 3.445 4.251 4892 6'188 7'488 9288 38'9 Total AnnuaL Ogetufítug SúpþoÌt, OPticlI and Rad'¡o 4. 4;t""t f- w*otio*tuppoitaate formøl^tion' ð. 'already develop-etl in Table 5 are shown in Table 6; some of the ûgures ,.o""t".I. The stuily goup to conJder the lalgest feasible optical time for telesco-pe 1. onlv to sive vears of the decaile' not i;Ë;;;ï;äJt".i". 3. but also to make use of the in- tirå t"irr"tting of the maior new telescopes, 4. expertise developecl during the-period of their engineering t"t-äiø" "f¿ stuily group to ;J;;;ril;rt""''The work of ihe proposed radios astronomv on a somewhat i scheduled ;;;ã;;;ili"tg;t possible movabL paraboloitlnfuence the construction of i more urgent basis, since its conclusiåns may ¡esult in its ä" r"""ilãoo-ioát paraboloiil that is recommendêtl6and couldthe provision Table includes conversion into a larger instrument' Line C of in Section V of the report antl f- fflö;Jrurri"n "aioo '""ommended 84 ¡¡¡L-.tr¡¡ , . Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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for automation and data-processing, likewise advocated in also the funds tlat Section. The funding for tlese programs is divided fairly evenly over the years, in the expectation ttrat there will be a great demand for this type of inst¡umentation in radio astronomy in the ûrst two yeârs, followed by the same type of support for the new optical telescopes as they are completed. Line D of Table 6 lists the annual operating support of research programs using the new instnnents, both radio and optical, taken from ttre schedules shown in Table 5. .LO The total proiected ten-yeæ spencling schedulg shom in ttre Ênal line of Table Q is displayed graphically in Figure 23. Of the total of $224 million . -I8.5 . for ttre ten-year period, the facfüties for grourd-based optical ashonomy 2s.0 amount to $68.2 million and those for radio astronomy to $97 million. The - 42.5 accumulated operating support for the completed {acilities at the end of :-l i ' 67.2 i s.3 r88 I 2.688 '¡i 6 t 7.0 4o.o ,; TABLE PR)POSED 10-Y EAR BUDCET-6 MILLION*Facilôtöes Cotßtructi.on and. Operati.on PROPOSED ( 10.0 1 )- 16.0 -ì ; o 1.0 66.0 i¡ 1o-YEA.R BIIDGEî YE,IRS-FOR SCIIEDI'LED FÀCIÌ-T¡IES ;i TOTAL 00 66.00 .j erv. r'-rcrcrrv co¡Ts 5oo 6-600 33.6 iì A opt¡cal tl r. ¿ 36-48" TeI¿s.-Unío. 80.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 .' 3.2 0.4 0.4 ¿88 9.288 38.9 i 2. 4 60-84" at UníÞ. Sítes 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.1 4.0 0.6 0.4 3. 3 t50-200" atBestsítes 6.5 7.0 5.0 3.5 60.0 iuoir:r.: 6.5 l!: 4. I Teles. Studg Gøup .25 .25 .25 '' -----J 1.0 - ,'j 5. 0 New ¿t neplacernent ,t Equtp. ***;; l:* 7.75 7-85 5.65 3.6 , Tolal Optìcal 68.2 b are , ,i Radío )scoDe l . I Pcnc¡l-Beotu Atav *--:- 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 It, 40.0 ne lor :i 2. 1 I Ant. Mobile Atag 2.5 2.É 1.0 2.0 1.5 0.5 10.0 .$ 3. 2 900-ft. SteefttbLe 2.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 .he in_ 76.0 ,r 4. I Larye Ant. StudA crcup 0.25 0.25 0.25. 0.25 7.0 eenng .Ì 5. J5 unla. Neu-Reptace. 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 30.0 i. 7.0 1s.75 12.75 10.50 10.00 9.00 7.OO 5.00 oup to 10.25 11.75 Total RødIo 97.0 ,{ C Instflrnents, Data processíng, rewhat 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 ion Ot 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 + Automatíon (Opt. ¿r Radì.o) 2.0 20.0 in.its ïO Annual Opet. Support t .416 1.073 1.879 3.445 4.251 4.892 6.188 Z.iAe S.zAe 38.9 ': )USIOn 12.400 19.366 24.023 26.129 26.195 24.301 24.642 25.038 22.138 19.888 224.1 Totd Prcposed .rl rrt and 85 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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25- OPEBÀTINC COST 2ö- 15- 10- RÁDIO ¡ÂCIÍ-IrÍES -- o"",a-to"ttt*' Ð- INSTBÛÀ/ÍENTS ÀND ÄUTOMÀTION I I I I I 10 YEÀ¡s 0 6 ð 4 TOTÀL EXPENDITIIÂES r80- 140- 100- 60- .-t' ^/ *=- 20- I t rtll I 10 YE{RS L234 i'ii,,i,iÅ:1.: Illekd facìIiÍíes,"^r,.,t:i.:;.:t^:::y:;:,iî,i1""1,!,,1åä"iíi'i::;:::u',ïl';::,":i,:'îÍr"liì"Tl,ii;. The loøer panel snot' Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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level reaches ten years amounts to $38.9 million, and the annual support rate of $g-3 million in ttre last year of ttre program' The over-all annual ;;;dt.*;;;"t in rhe árst four veaìs tã a maximum of aat the$endmillion bout 26 of the ;i;;Ñ,h; ;adual decline to ábout $20 million a vear *--"it decacle. ¿""tlo" in the predicted rate toward ttre end of ttre decaile requires a ten-year program of a word of clariffcation, It arises from the fact tlat " on the assumption tlat all the instru- facilities construction must pthe- roceed enil of the decade' It is' of course' likeþ' ;"*;ii-b" ""mpleted at ,J""tU""t "l-ost certain, that, well before tle end of ttre ten-year period' ;ahJ;a"il; *p*tant faciities now unforeseeable will have appeared on ,ltìl-in""1 lvËether these can be built within an annual eæenditurg Êle l at the maximum predicted ûgure in the fourtl and fth that is stabiLized ÍES a continuecl growth in spend- tlllcfEs vears of tle current program, or wiil tfotãtold. 'woulil inileeil be reason to question equire i ¡{ND ,,o* b" There í"g, "itality of Àmerican astronomy if lhe instrunents here recommendeil """"t thã v *ã" touo¿ suficient for many decades, ¡ather than merely for the im- mediately foreseeable futu¡e. fuwuøt Scìentific Suppott lor Exíßting Faaiktíes Although it is not a part of the PaneÏs task to make iletaileil recommeird'a- wish to record its deep ES ;;";; tle scale of- total a.toual support, it does ;J,'ä;ovJ, ,h; problem of maint"i'üg a ptoper balance of support' with- ã"iir"tt¡r¡l"g iis emphasis oo """"ùuI ttew gtound-based for neglectthef acilities' ^not o be anv tliversion of iuppo* from Þ;;"ññ-aú t},"ru deparknents, ã"goi";ptogt"-s"'in existing otsewatories and university istribution of It is particularþ important, tËe Panel feels, to maintain a d astronomical LIfIES i"aãå ,opport t¡atiill ensure an equitable balance between ufiort in näãonal centers and tlat in universiÇ departments' .c¡l-rTfES of coø' ¡ ack geøt. 87 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.