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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership During 2010, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL; jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP). The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. SPACE STUDIES BOARD HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES The Space Studies Board held its 160th meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on March 8-10. The meeting was devoted to a discussion of the fiscal year 2011 budget and the outlook for the various agencies. The first day of the meeting was a joint session with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB), at which the boards heard from Chris Scolese, NASA Office of the Administrator; Ed Weiler, NASA Science Mission Directorate; Doug Cooke, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate; David Radzanowski, NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate; Paul Shawcross and Brian Dewhurst, Office of Management and Budget; Richard Leshner and Johannes Loschnigg, Office of Science and Technology Policy; and congressional representatives, including Dick Obermann, Ed Feddeman, and Jeff Bingham. On day two the ASEB and SSB met separately, and the SSB heard from Tim Killeen, NSF/Directorate for Geosciences, and Mary Kicza, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NOAA/ NESDIS). The SSB did not meet during the second or third quarter, however, the SSB executive committee (XCOM) did meet on August 23-25 at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for its annual strategic planning session. The XCOM met with Marc Allen of NASA and congressional representatives Dick Obermann and Jeff Bingham. The discussion between XCOM and the government representatives included the impacts of recent reports, future areas of study for the Board, and the role of the Board and standing committees. XCOM members also discussed lessons learned and impacts from the decadal surveys, the midterm assessments of the decadal survey process, and the cost and technical risk assessments that have been done for the recent decadal surveys. The XCOM also discussed potential workshop activities and met with Jean Pierre Swings (European Space 8

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9 Board and Standing Committees Sciences Committee Chair) and Jean-Claude Worms (European Science Foundation) via teleconference for a discus- sion on a possible European Space Sciences Committee-SSB joint forum series. The SSB met November 8, 2010, for their 161st meeting at the National Academies’ Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, for a short executive session. The Board then attended and participated in the workshop “Sharing the Adventure with the Public: The Value and Excitement of ‘Grand Questions’ of Space Science and Exploration,” which is described in more detail in Chapter 4 of this report. SPACE STUDIES BOARD MEMBERSHIP July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010 July 1, 2010–June 30, 2011 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Diego (chair) (chair) A. Thomas Young,1 Lockheed Martin Corporation John M. Klineberg,2 Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice (retired) (vice chair) chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado at Boulder Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College and Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Aerospace Corporation Laboratory Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Atmospheric Research Institution Heidi B. Hammel, Space Science Institute Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Atmospheric Research Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii John F. Mustard, Brown University Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Berrien Moore III, Climate Central California Institute of Technology Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, James Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University California Institute of Technology Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University David N. Spergel, Princeton University Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Warren M. Washington, National Center for Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Atmospheric Research Warren M. Washington, National Center for Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Atmospheric Research Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Ellen G. Zweibel, University of Wisconsin Ex Officio and Liaison Members Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (ex-officio, chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jean-Pierre Swings, Université de Liège (liaison, chair of the European Space Science Committee) Jay S. Pearlman, IEEE (ex-officio, member of the NRC Ocean Studies Board) Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley (U.S. Representative to COSPAR; from July 1) Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (U.S. Representative to COSPAR; through June 30) 1 Term ended in December 2010. 2 Term began in February 2011.

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10 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2010 Membership of the SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010 July 1, 2010–June 30, 2011 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Diego (chair) (chair) A. Thomas Young,3 Lockheed Martin Corporation John M. Klineberg,4 Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice (retired) (vice chair) chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Staff in 2010 Michael H. Moloney, Director (joined SSB in April) Richard E. Rowberg, Interim Board Director (through March) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer Robert L. Riemer,5 Senior Program Officer, BPA David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer John Wendt,5 Senior Program Officer, ASEB Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer Paul Jackson,5 Program Officer, ASEB David Lang,5 Program Officer, BPA Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer Lewis Groswald, Research Associate Celeste A. Naylor, Information Management Associate Tanja E. Pilzak, Manager, Program Operations Christina O. Shipman, Financial Officer Sandra Wilson, Financial Assistant Catherine A. Gruber, Editor Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator Andrea Rebholz,5 Program Associate, ASEB Dionna Williams, Program Associate Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant Consultant Regina North 3 Term ended in December 2010. 4 Term began in February 2011. 5 Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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11 Board and Standing Committees Space Policy Interns and Fellows Jason Callahan, 2010 Fall Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Dara Fisher, 2010 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Andreas Frick, 2010 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Gabriele Betancourt Martinez, 2010 Fall Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Bruno Sánchez-Andrade Nuño, 2010 Fall Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow Heather Smith, Winter 2011 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR COSPAR The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council of Science held its annual business meetings at COSPAR’s Paris headquarters on March 22-25. Edward Stone, the U.S. representative to COSPAR and COSPAR vice president, and U.S. National Committee staff participated. Dr. Stone’s term as U.S. representative ended on June 30, and he was succeeded by Robert P. Lin, a professor of physics of the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) and the former director of the UCB Space Sciences Laboratory, on July 1. The COSPAR Council elected new officers during its meeting in Bremen, Germany, on July 17. Dr. Lin was elected as one of the vice presidents of the COSPAR Council. The council also selected Moscow, Russia, as the provisional host of the 2014 COSPAR Scientific Assembly. The 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly was held in Bremen, Germany, on July 18-25, 2010. Scientific awards and medals for 2010 were presented on July 19. COSPAR will hold its next scientific assembly in Mysore, India, on July 14-22, 2012. The annual business meetings will be held at COSPAR’s Paris headquarters on March 21-24, 2011. U.S. Representative to COSPAR Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley (from July 1) Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (through June 30) Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (executive secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB STANDING COMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the BPA, continued to be on hiatus through completion of the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey in August 2010. The NRC is exploring the reestablishment of the CAA with a modified charge following the release of the decadal survey. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.1. Staff David Lang, Program Officer, BPA COMMITTEE ON EARTH STUDIES The Committee on Earth Studies held its only meeting of 2010 on July 7-8 in Washington, D.C. Agenda items for this meeting included briefings by NASA, NOAA, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) officials on the implementation of the decadal survey in Earth science and applications from space and the implications of a major restructuring of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System program for climate-related

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12 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2010 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- First CenturyAstronomy and for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and Observatories for Astronomy Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Strategy for Ground-Based A Scientific Assessment of Review of Gravity Optical and Infrared a New Technology Orbital Probe B (1995) Astronomy (1995) Telescope (1995) Federal Funding of Failed Stars and Super A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Astronomical Planets (1998) and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) U.S. Astronomy and “Review of Science The Atacama Large Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) Astrophysics: Managing Requirements for the Millimeter Array (ALMA): an Integrated Program Terrestrial Planet Finder: Implications of a (2001) Letter Report” (2004) Potential Descope “The Review of Progress in (2005) Astronomy and Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy The Astrophysical (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) Science Centers (2007) Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Architecture for Implementation (2007) Astrophysics Program (2007) New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010) Panel ReportsNew Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (prepublication, 2010) Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey (prepublication, 2010) FIGURE 2.1 SSB-NRC advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2010).

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13 Board and Standing Committees measurements, including continuity of climate data records. As is customary, the committee also met with agency officials to discuss issues of mutual interest, including potential NRC studies or workshops. A subject of particular interest to the CES is the yet-to-be requested study on the “governance” of Earth observations, which was mandated by the 2005 NASA Authorization Act. To discuss prospects for the study, a tele- conference was convened in August for members of the CES; NRC staff, including the directors of the SSB and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate; and representatives from Office of Science and Technology Policy, the U.S. Global Change Research Program, and NASA. Also during the third quarter, SSB staff and members of the committee met with representatives from the USGS Geography Division to discuss a potential study on the value of developing an operational land remote sensing capability. A preliminary statement of task for this study was developed, and revisions were underway as the quarter ended. Planning continued during the fourth quarter as SSB staff met with senior officials at the USGS Geography Division, members of CES reviewed a preliminary statement of task for this study, and a study proposal to the NRC was prepared. Members of the committee were also involved in developing a statement of task for a congressionally mandated study that will assess Earth science programs at NASA at the mid-point of the decadal survey cycle (the first NRC decadal survey in Earth science, Earth Science and Applications from Space, published in January 2007). Also during 2010, members of the CES and SSB staff attended the June 28-30, Irvine, California, meeting of the NRC Committee on Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations, a shared activity of the Ocean Studies Board and the SSB. A historical summary of reports from CES and related committees is presented in Figure 2.2. Membership Berrien Moore III, Climate Central (chair) Ruth S. DeFries, Columbia University (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Heidi M. Dierssen, University of Connecticut, Avery Point Hung-Lung Allen Huang, University of Wisconsin, Madison Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University Jay S. Pearlman, Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB COMMITTEE ON THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE The Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Life Sciences, held its first meeting of 2010 at the University of Southern California on February 17-19. The committee’s current activities remained focused on the initiation of a study for NASA concerning the planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to the icy bodies of the outer solar system. A formal request to initiate such a study was received from NASA on May 20. The ad hoc Committee for Planetary Standards for Icy Body Protection in the Outer Planets was appointed and will begin meeting in 2011 to address their statement of task (see Chapter 3). COEL held its second meeting of 2010 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on June 3-4. The main focus of the meeting was a series of presentations and discussions on virtual institutes—their role, operation, and criteria for success.

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14 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2010 NASA's Plans for Post-2002 Earth Observing Missions (1999) "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research—I. Systems for Climate Research—II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Program Plan (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government :Information for Management and Decision Making (2003) Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: “Assessment of NASA's Draft Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy” (2003) Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Review of Goals and Plans for Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) NASA's Space and Earth Sciences (2005) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) “A Review of NASA's 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report” (2006) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (2007)* Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (2008) Uncertainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data: Summary of a Workshop (2009) Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Collaboration on Space and Earth Science Missions [prepublication] (2010) *The edited and final version of this Workshop Summary is also included as Appendix B in Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft (2008) FIGURE 2.2 SSB-NRC advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2010).

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15 Board and Standing Committees COEL’s last meeting of 2010 was at the National Academies’ Jonsson Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on October 13-15. Discussions at this meeting included astrobiology, life on the titanian ocean, and life in extreme environments. A historical summary of reports from COEL and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3. Membership July 1, 2009–June 30, 2010 July 2010–June 30, 2011 J. Gregory Ferry, Pennsylvania State University J. Gregory Ferry, Pennsylvania State University (co-chair) (co-chair) Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (co-chair) California Institute of Technology (co-chair) Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa Barbara Barbara Katrina J. Edwards, University of Southern California Katrina J. Edwards, University of Southern California Paul G. Falkowski,6 Rutgers, The State University of Margo G. Haygood, University of Colorado, Boulder New Jersey Dante Lauretta, University of Arizona Margo G. Haygood, University of Colorado, Boulder Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Dante Lauretta, University of Arizona Mexico Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied de Mexico Physics Laboratory Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Jeff Moersch, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Physics Laboratory John C. Priscu, Montana State University Gary Ruvkin,7 Masachusetts General Hospital Jeff Moersch, University of Tennessee, Knoxville John C. Priscu, Montana State University Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Sara Seager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Everett Shock, Arizona State University Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, University of New Mexico Everett Shock, Arizona State University Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, University of New Mexico European Space Science Committee Liaison Frances Westall, CNRS Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Orleans, France Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration is on hiatus until the completion of the planetary sciences decadal survey. A historical summary of reports from COMPLEX and related committees is presented in Figure 2.4. Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB 6 Term ended in December 2010. 7 Term ended in October 2010.

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16 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2010 Planetary Protection Mars Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the “Study on the Exploration of Mars (1965) Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) “Review of the Extraterrestrial Life—An Sterilization Anthology and Bibliography, Parameter Probability Supplementary to Biology and Astrobiology “Review of Planetary of Growth (Pg)” the Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” (1970) (1972) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Investigations of Mars (1977) Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Life— Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Implications for the Planets: A Scientific Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) Strategy for the 1980s (1981) “On NASA Policy for Planetary “On Categorization of the The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Protection” (1985) Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “Recommendation on “On Categorization Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: Planetary Protection of the Comet 1990-2000 (1990) Categorization of the Comet Rendezvous– Biological Contamination Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby Asteroid Flyby of Mars: Issues and Mission and the Titan- Mission” (1986) Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Mars Sample Return: Issues Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) Preventing the “On Scientific Forward Assessment of Options Contamination of for the Disposition of the The Quarantine and Certification Europa (2000) Galileo Spacecraft” of Martian Samples (2002) (2000) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) the Exploration of Mars (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) Assessment of Planetary The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) (2009) FIGURE 2.3 SSB-NRC advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2009).

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17 Board and Standing Committees INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration— Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Primitive Solar-System Strategy for Exploration of the A Strategy for Exploration Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) of the Outer Planets: and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 1986-1996 (1986) (1980) Update to Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) A Science Strategy for the Assessment of Mars Exploring the Trans- Exploration of Europa (1999) Science and Mission Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Exploration of The Quarantine and Near-Earth Objects Certification of Martian (1998) Samples (2001) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA's Mars The Scientific Context for Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Exploration of the Moon (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Exploration of Mars (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System: Interim Report (2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (2009) FIGURE 2.4 SSB-NRC advice on solar system exploration (1969-2009). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.3.

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18 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2010 COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics met on March 3-5 in Boulder, Colorado, at the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics to continue its planning for the initiation of the Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics), a comprehensive science and mission strategy for heliophysics research for a 10-year period beginning in approximately 2013 (see Chapter 3 for details about the survey). For the remainder of 2010, CSSP was on hiatus until the completion of the decadal survey. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB SPACE RESEARCH DISCIPLINES WITHOUT STANDING COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION Although there are no longer standing committees representing microgravity research or space biology and medicine, a decadal survey on biological and physical sciences in space was conducted (see Chapter 3). A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7.

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19 Board and Standing Committees Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer The Physics of the Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Sun (1985) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Astronomy and Radiation and the Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: Astrophysics in the International Space Station: Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for New Millennium Recommendations to Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) (2000) Reduce Risk (1999) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Distributed Arrays of Small Solar and Space Physics Heliosphere and the Local Instruments for Solar- and Its Role in Space Interstellar Medium: A Terrestrial Research: Report Exploration (2004) Workshop Report (2004) of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) Severe Space Weather Events Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008) A Performance Assessment of NASA's Heliophysics Program (2009) FIGURE 2.5 SSB-NRC advice on solar and space physics (1980-2009).

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20 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2010 HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES SPACE BIOLOGY Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Radiobiological Factors in Report on NASA Biology Program Physiology in the Space Manned Spaceflight (1967) (1968) Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 (1968) Space Biology (1970) Radiation Protection Infectious Disease Guides and Life Sciences in Space: Report of in Manned Constraints for the Study to Review NASA Life Spaceflight: Space-Mission and Sciences Programs (1970) Probabilities and Vehicle-Design Countermeasures Studies Involving (1970) Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) Life Beyond the Earth's HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Scientific Uses of the Environment (1979) Spaceflight (1973) Space Shuttle (1974) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) Space Science in the Twenty-First "On the Extended Century: Life Sciences (1988) Duration Orbiter Medical Research Program“ (1989) "On Several Issues in the Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine1991 1991) Space Life Sciences“ (1993) "On Continued Operation of the BEVALAC Facility“ (1992) "On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program“ (1994) "On Peer Review in Radiation Hazards to Crews of "On the Planned National NASA Life Sciences Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues Space Biomedical Research Programs“ (1995) and Research Strategies (1996) Institute“ (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Review of NASA's Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Biomedical Research Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) FIGURE 2.6 SSB-NRC advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2010).

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21 Board and Standing Committees Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Applications: Report on a Imperatives for the Workshop (1986, Board on Decades 1995 to Physics and Astronomy) 2015. Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) "On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program“ (1994) "On the Utilization of the Space Station“ (1994) Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) "On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report“ (1995) (1996) (1997) "On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station“ (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human International Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Space Station (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) FIGURE 2.7 SSB-NRC advice on microgravity research (1978-2010).