costly, and time consuming. On the other hand, Steve Wise questioned how best to address the different aspirations that students have. While there is currently a heavy emphasis on ensuring all students pursue higher education, in reality, that is not likely to occur. Students have different goals. Do we design a system that is a “one size fits all plan,” he asked, do we focus on minimal competency across the board, or do we design a system that attends to the specific needs of the individual?

Several workshop participants spoke of the types of research needed in order to move forward with assessments of these skills. Deirdre Knapp pointed out many assessments are “pushing the envelope” as far as psychometric capabilities. For example, how does one evaluate the reliability of assessments such as those used by Art Graesser’s Auto Tutor? Greg Duncan called for research in two areas. First, he noted, if we are to relate these skills to training in school, we need to know what it takes to change these skills. That is, how malleable are they and what is involved in improving them? Second, he called for more in-depth study of the predictive power of the various skills, noting that what is needed is not simply correlations among the variables but well-controlled analyses to demonstrate that improvement in these skills results in improvement in academic and labor market outcomes. Finally, Juan Sanchez, professor of management and international business at Florida International University, called for increased levels of cross-disciplinary efforts, stressing that successfully tackling these issues will require the collaboration of expertise from many disciplines including measurement, cognitive psychology, and information technology.

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