TABLE 10-2 Internal Memory Strategies

Strategy Treatment Comparator
Study Design Multiple Visual Imagery No Treatment Non- CRT Other CRT
Bourgeois et al. 2007 RCT × ×
Dirette et al. 1999 RCT × ×
Dou et al. 2006 RCT × ×
Ruff et al. 1994 RCT × ×
Ryan and Ruff 1988 RCT × ×
Tam and Man 2004 RCT × ×
Thickpenny-Davis and Barker-Collo 2007 RCT × ×
O’Neil-Pirozzi et al. 2010 Parallel × ×
Goldstein et al. 1996 Parallel × ×
Milders et al. 1998 Pre-Post ×
Benedict and Wechsler 1992 SS/MB ×
Ehlhardt et al. 2005 SS/MB ×
Hux et al. 2000 SS/MB ×
Manasse et al. 2005 SS/MB ×

to receive a structured memory program or to join a waitlist. The memory intervention consisted of educating participants about memory (four parts of memory: attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval), assisting participants in understanding their own memory impairment and its effects, introducing and practicing strategies to aid memory and learning, and assisting participants in identifying the most appropriate and useful strategies for them. Strategies included didactic teaching, small group activities, discussions, problem solving and practice implementing memory strategies, errorless learning, and repetition. Postintervention, the experimental group as compared to the control group improved in many neuropsychological measures of memory (California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT]) long delayed free recall, Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) logical memory delayed recall, and response time on the attention test (Continuous Performance Test [CPT]). The experimental group also showed increased knowledge of memory/memory strategies, increased use of memory aids/strategies, and decreased behaviors indicative of memory impairment. Results were maintained at follow-up with the exception of response time on the attention test

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