This scant evidence base shows that telehealth technologies, including telephone and two-way messaging, are feasible means of providing at least part of CRT for some patients. No studies evaluated the use of telemedicine, as defined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services as two-way audio and video interactive communication. Overall evidence is insufficient to clearly establish whether telehealth technology delivery modes are more or less effective or more or less safe than other means of delivering CRT. However, when combined as part of a broader CRT program, telehealth technologies, including telephone calls, can contribute to outpatient treatment programs with comparable results to inpatient programs for selected individuals.
Bergquist, T., C. Gehl, S. Lepore, N. Holzworth, and W. Beaulieu. 2008. Internet-based cognitive rehabilitation in individuals with acquired brain injury: A pilot feasibility study. Brain Injury 22(11):891–897.
Bergquist, T., C. Gehl, J. Mandrekar, S. Lepore, S. Hanna, A. Osten, and W. Beaulieu. 2009. The effect of Internet-based cognitive rehabilitation in persons with memory impairments after severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 23(10):790–799.
Bergquist, T. F., K. Thompson, C. Gehl, and J. M. Pineda. 2010. Satisfaction ratings after receiving Internet-based cognitive rehabilitation in persons with memory impairments after severe acquired brain injury. Telemedicine and e Health 16(4):417–423.
Bourgeois, M. S., K. Lenius, L. Turkstra, and C. Camp. 2007. The effects of cognitive teletherapy on reported everyday memory behaviours of persons with chronic traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 21(12):1245–1257.
Braverman, S. E., J. Spector, D. L. Warden, B. C. Wilson, T. E. Ellis, M. J. Bamdad, and A. M. Salazar. 1999. A multidisciplinary TBI inpatient rehabilitation programme for active duty service members as part of a randomized clinical trial. Brain Injury 13(6):405–415.
Diamond, B. J., G. M. Shreve, J. M. Bonilla, M. V. Johnston, J. Morodan, and R. Branneck. 2003. Telerehabilitation, cognition and user-accessibility. Neurorehabilitation 18(2):171–177.
Dou, Z. L., D. W. K. Man, H. N. Ou, J. L. Zheng, and S. F. Tam. 2006. Computerized errorless learning-based memory rehabilitation for Chinese patients with brain injury: A preliminary quasi-experimental clinical design study. Brain Injury 20(3):219–225.
Egan, J., L. Worrall, and D. Oxenham. 2005. An Internet training intervention for people with traumatic brain injury: Barriers and outcomes. Brain Injury 19(8):555–568.
Melton, A. K., and M. S. Bourgeois. 2005. Training compensatory memory strategies via the telephone for persons with TBI. Aphasiology 19(3-5):353–364.
Ownsworth, T. L., and K. McFarland. 1999. Memory remediation in long-term acquired brain injury: Two approaches in diary training. Brain Injury 13(8):605–626.
Salazar, A. M., D. L. Warden, K. Schwab, J. Spector, S. Braverman, J. Walter, R. Cole, M. M. Rosner, E. M. Martin, J. Ecklund, and R. G. Ellenbogen. 2000. Cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: A randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 283(23):3075–3081.