TABLE 14-1 Overall Conclusions by Cognitive Domain and Multi-Modal/Comprehensive CRT

Domain Attention Executive Function Language and Social Communication Memory Multi-Modal/ Comprehensive CRT
Subdomain Awareness Non-Awareness
TBI Severity Moderate-Severe Moderate-Severe Moderate-Severe Mild Moderate-Severe Moderate-Severe Mild Moderate-Severe
Recovery Phase Subacute Chronic Chronic Chronic Chronic Subacute Chronic
Approach R R R R/IC/EC R IC EC R IC EC M M M
Patient-Centered Outcomes 0 + 0 + 0 0 N/A 0 + ++ 0 + 0
Long-Term Treatment Effect + 0 0 0 + + N/A 0 + N/A 0 + 0
Immediate Treatment Benefit + + + + ++ N/A 0 ++ ++ 0 + 0

NOTES: EC = external compensatory strategy; IC = internal compensatory strategy; M = mixture of treatment approaches; R = restorative strategy; Evidence Grades: 0 no or not informative, + limited, ++ modest, +++ strong. Multiple treatments intended to target cognitive (non-awareness) aspects of executive function were examined in single studies. The treatments varied in their approach from more restorative (e.g., categorization training) to internal compensatory (e.g., Goal Management Training) to external compensatory (e.g., neutral alerting tones). The evidence grading reflects the lack of replication of any single approach.



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