Appendix D

Approach to Literature Review


The committee developed an approach to review and evaluate a broad range of evidence generated through general and focused literature searches. This approach included: (1) establishing research objectives, (2) developing a literature search strategy, and (3) setting eligibility criteria to evaluate and rate the evidence.

Research Objectives

The committee refined the Statement of Task’s broad study objectives into more specific research goals to guide the literature search. The Statement of Task identified the following broad study objectives:

•   consider the potential benefits of a single, standardized, front-label food guidance system administrated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),

•   assess which icons are most effective with consumer audiences, and

•   develop conclusions and recommendations about the system/icons that best promote health and how to maximize their use.

From these objectives, the committee developed research goals, specifically to examine literature relevant to:

•   Food package regulation and the regulatory environment, including federal agency jurisdiction over animal-based food products;

•   The context for consumers’ use of nutrition information and product choices;

•   Consumer understanding and use of front-of-package (FOP) labeling systems, point-of-purchase labeling, and shelf tags;

•   Impact of the FOP labeling environment, including package design, package clutter, and product claims on consumer food choice and behavior;

•   Design models of FOP symbol systems and influences of symbol systems on consumer food choice and behavior;

•   Nutrients to limit and nutrient thresholds consistent with current dietary guidance; and

•   FOP educational and promotional health campaigns.

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