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Index

A

Actinobacteria, 34, 35, 44

Actinomycete bacteria, 38, 41

Actinorhizal plants, 30–31

Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 18–19, 24

Allelopathy, 129

Alloparents and alloparental care, 49–50, 66–67, 299–300, 304, 307, 308–309, 311–312, 315

Altruism, xv–xvi, 11 (see also Restraint; Human prosocial sentiments; specific attributes)

evolution of, 131–132, 343–362

greenbeard alleles, 17, 56

indirect genetic effects, xvi

parental manipulation of offspring, 188

phenotypic gambit and, 11

as selfish act, 50

Amoeba (see Dictyostelium discoideum)

Amundsen, Roald, 370

Angelman syndrome (AS), 260, 282–283, 284–285

Anopheles gambiae, 178, 186

Antibiotic resistance (see also Chemotherapy; Malaria)

broad-spectrum drug use and, 251

evidence-based management, 248–249

fitness advantages of, 243–246

fitness costs of, 243

hypothetical pathway, 240

in-host competition of clones and, 242–243, 250–251

lateral transfer of genes, 219, 251

management strategies, 238, 239–240, 246–248

radical pathogen cure and, 235, 237, 238, 241, 246

real-world context, 240–246

selection for, 235, 236, 238–239, 241–242, 243–246, 248

single-gene knockout, 200

useful life span of drug, 239–240

Antibiotics

in animal feeds, 238

mutualist production of, 26, 30, 32, 38, 39, 44, 92

restrictions on use, 238

Ants (see also Fire ants; Social Hymenoptera)

alloparental care, 50

bacterial mutualism, 30–31, 39, 44

brain evolution, 177, 187–188

fungus-growing, 30–31, 39

greenbeard behavior, 56, 67

hexamerins, 184

immunity genes, 171, 178, 179

kin recognition, 49–50, 56



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Index A fitness costs of, 243 hypothetical pathway, 240 Actinobacteria, 34, 35, 44 in-host competition of clones and, 242- Actinomycete bacteria, 38, 41 243, 250-251 Actinorhizal plants, 30-31 lateral transfer of genes, 219, 251 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 18-19, 24 management strategies, 238, 239-240, Allelopathy, 129 246-248 Alloparents and alloparental care, 49-50, radical pathogen cure and, 235, 237, 66-67, 299-300, 304, 307, 308-309, 238, 241, 246 311-312, 315 real-world context, 240-246 Altruism, xv-xvi, 11 (see also Restraint; selection for, 235, 236, 238-239, 241-242, Human prosocial sentiments; specific 243-246, 248 attributes) single-gene knockout, 200 evolution of, 131-132, 343-362 useful life span of drug, 239-240 greenbeard alleles, 17, 56 Antibiotics indirect genetic effects, xvi in animal feeds, 238 parental manipulation of offspring, 188 mutualist production of, 26, 30, 32, 38, phenotypic gambit and, 11 39, 44, 92 as selfish act, 50 restrictions on use, 238 Amoeba (see Dictyostelium discoideum) Ants (see also Fire ants; Social Amundsen, Roald, 370 Hymenoptera) Angelman syndrome (AS), 260, 282-283, alloparental care, 50 284-285 bacterial mutualism, 30-31, 39, 44 Anopheles gambiae, 178, 186 brain evolution, 177, 187-188 Antibiotic resistance (see also fungus-growing, 30-31, 39 Chemotherapy; Malaria) greenbeard behavior, 56, 67 broad-spectrum drug use and, 251 hexamerins, 184 evidence-based management, 248-249 immunity genes, 171, 178, 179 fitness advantages of, 243-246 kin recognition, 49-50, 56 437

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438 / Index odorant receptor genes, 174 Bees, primitive eusocial (see also Honey origins of eusociality, 169 bees) runaway social selection, 67 brain evolution, 176-177, 187-188 slave making, 176 gland development genes for chemical social foraging behavior, 187 signaling, 173, 187 unicoloniality, 50, 67, 68 metabolism and nutrition genes, 172, Apis mellifera (see also Honey bee), 53, 169, 185-186 174, 178-179, 181, 183, 185-186 molecular evolution study, 169 Arms race, evolutionary, 166, 178, 180, 209, origins of eusociality, 169 (see also 215 Honey bees; Social Hymenoptera) Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia, iv, viii, xiii, ovary development, 181 84, 135, 211 piRNA pathway, 171, 172, 181 Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii reproduction-related genes, 171-172, 181 Asobara tabida, 228-229 Beewolves, 32-33, 41 Autism, 236, 254, 277, 284-285, 289, 291-292 Behavioral economics games, 347-349 Avise, John C., xiii-xiv Beta-glycosidases, 175 Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv Biodiversity, defined, xiii Azolla filiculoides, 43 Biofilms (see also Multispecies biofilms) defined, 140 single-species, 193 B Bioluminescence, 26, 30, 40 Bipolar disorder, 285 Baboons, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, Birds (see also Cooperative breeding in 339, 350 birds) Bacteria (see also Bacterial; “Mycetocyte” coloration and plumage, 66 bacteria; Myxococcus xanthus; other Blowfly (Calliphora vicina), 184 individual species) Bobtail squid, 30-31, 41, 155 mobile DNA, 219 Bonobos (Pan paniscus), 336, 361 Bacterial symbioses, defined, 28 Boyd, Robert, 301, 363-382 Bacterial-eukaryotic mutualisms Bradyrhizobium japonicum, 41, 45 benefits provided to hosts, 26-27, 29-30, Brain evolution, 176-177, 187-188 32 Bumble bees, 169, 179 breakdown of, 2, 29, 31, 33, 43-45, 46, 47 Burkholderia spp., 30-31, 37-38, 40-41, 44 greenbeard genes, 18 Byproduct cooperation, 11, 31, 38, 39, 157, host association origins, 27, 31, 33, 34, 333 35-36, 45-46, 47 host localization, 28, 30, 32 maintenance of, 29, 38-42 C methods, 29, 46-47 origins, xvi, 29, 36-38, 46 Cancer, 138, 236, 237, 252, 275, 277, 278-282 from parasitism, 2, 30-31, 35, 36-37, 46, Capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), 327, 47 343, 357, 358-359 stabilizing forces, 2, 31, 33 Cell–cell adhesion, 94, 95, 97, 107, 114, 158, symbiont capture, 29, 42-43 166, 203, 204 transmission among hosts, 30, 32, 45, 46 Central Inuit, 366-369, 370 Bacterial parasites, 28 Centromere drive, 221, 223-224, 225 Bacteriocins, 18, 129, 192, 226, 242 Chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, 30-31, 38, 39, 41 327-328, 330 Baffin Island Inuit, 371 Cheaters/cheating Bdelloid rotifers, 233 in bacterial mutualisms, 2, 40-41, 46 Beckwith–Weidemann syndrome, 280-281, controls, 166, 191, 198, 201-206, 211 282, 283, 284-285 defining, 198-199

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Index / 439 Dictyostelium discoideum, 166, 198-201, Clark University, vii 211 Clostridium difficile, 251 distinguishing, 40-41, 340-341 Cognitive ability, and cultural adaptation, facultative, 198, 199, 200 363, 364-366, 371-372, 380-381 falsebeards, 55 Coloration, warning, 20 fixed, 198, 199, 200 Conflict (see also Cheaters/cheating; kin discrimination and, 166, 191, 198, Genetic conflict; Genomic 201, 202-203 imprinting; Pathology from lottery-like role assignment and, 166, evolutionary conflict; Sexual 191, 202, 204-206 conflict) Myxococcus xanthus, 88, 93, 107-109, 110 condition-based power, 207 noble resistor genes and, 166, 191, 208 controls, 193, 206-208 pleiotropy and, 166, 191, 201, 202, in Dictyostelium discoideum, 166, 191, 203-204 200, 206-208, 210-211 primate insensitivity to, 325, 332, embryo-maternal, 236, 260 340-341 first-strike power, 206 punishment of, 40, 300, 330, 332, 340, insider-outsider theory, 80-81 341, 342, 346, 348, 349, 360, 361 interlocus, 56, 57, 62 relatedness within social groups and, male parentage (worker policing), 2, 49, 191, 197-198, 201-202 51, 52-53 by single-gene knockouts, 200-201 in model organisms of cooperation, social parasites, 198, 199, 202 193-194 by wild clones, 199-200 parent-offspring, 236, 260, 265, 271, 272 Chemotherapy (see also Antibiotic) power asymmetries and, 166, 202, 206- aims of patient treatment, 239-240 208, 261-262 cancer, 252 resolution during group formation of combination drug therapy, 237 breeding birds, 80 multiple-strain infection and, 235-236 siblings, 261-262 radical pathogen cure , 235, 237, 238, weaning, 260 241, 246 within-group, 91, 111 social structure of the pathogen and, 235 Consanguineous matings, 264 Cheney, Dorothy L., 300, 325-342 Cooperation (see also Vertebrate Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), 300, 327 cooperation) Chickens, meiotic drive in, 225 laboratory-friendly models, 194-195 Chimeras/chimerism, 191, 197-198, 200, 221 and major transitions in evolution, Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) 193-194 attribution of intentions, 330, 332 Cooperative breeding in birds cognitive constraints, 335, 365, 366, 380 among-generation bet-hedging, 73, 82 cultural adaptation, 378, 380, 381 benefits of philopatry hypothesis, 71, contingent altruism, 337-338, 360 72, 80, 81 detection of noncooperators, 340 climatic uncertainty and reproductive emotional constraints, 336 success, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77-78, 79, 81, generosity in, 351-353 82, 83-84 helping behavior, 353-355 conflict resolution during group inequity aversion, 361 formation, 80 prosocial sentiments and behavior, 343, ecological constraints hypothesis, 3, 70, 351-356, 381 71, 72, 73, 80, 81 recognition of others’ relationships, 300, environmental quality (temporal 328 variation) and, 69, 70-72, 73-74, 79-82 Chlorobi, 34, 35 fecundity variance, 3, 69, 72, 74, 77-78, Chloroflexi, 34, 35 82 Cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni), 328 fitness optimization, 72

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440 / Index group size, 69-70, 72, 73, 74, 77-78, 79, lost technology examples, 370-271 82, 83 maladaptations, 379-381 habitat heterogeneity and reproductive modeling successful behaviors, 376-378 success, 71, 74, 76, 77, 79, 81-82, 83, Netsilik, 366, 370 84 Polar Inuit, 371 inclusive fitness benefits, 70 population process, 371-377 insider-outsider conflict theory, 80-81 social learning biases and, 379-380 kin neighborhoods and, 81-82 West Greenland Inuit, 375 obligate plural breeders, 74 Cyanobacterium spp., 32-33 reproductive skew, 80 Cyphomyrmex longiscapus, 41 territory quality (spatial variation), 69, Cytoplasmic incompatibility, 228, 229 70-72, 73, 74, 79-81 within-generation bet-hedging (risk D aversion) hypotheses, 3, 69, 72-74, 79, 82, 83 Daphnia species, 233 Cooperative breeding in humans (see also Darwinian medicine, 235 Dogon people) Day, Troy, 235-236, 237-252 alloparenting, 299-300, 303, 304, 307, Depression, 285 308-309, 311-312, 315 Dictator Game, 300, 345-346, 348, 351 cooperative breeding hypothesis, 306 Dictyostelium discoideum grandmaternal survival and altruism, 166, 196-197 grandoffspring survival, 304 cell adhesion genes, 166, 203, 204 Hadza of Tanzania, 304 characteristics, 195 kin selection theory, 306, 309 cheaters/cheating, 166, 198-201, 211 !Kung, 304 cheating controls, 166, 191, 201-206, 211 life history theory, 306 chimerism, 191, 197-198, 200 Maya of the Yucatan, 304 condition-based power, 207 parent–offspring conflict theory, 308 conflict, 166, 191, 200, 206-208, 210-211 parental manipulation theory, 308 differentiation-inducing factor signaling social dominance theory, 308 system, 204, 207-208, 211 Coral reef communities, 129 dimA gene, 204 Coriobacterium glomerans, 32-33 evolutionary arms races in social genes, Crespi, Bernard J., 236, 275-297 207 Crespi–Badcock theory, 284 farming of bacteria, 166, 210, 211 Crozier’s paradox, 56, 60, 66 first-strike power, 206 Cryptotermes secundus, 175 fruiting bodies, 195, 196-197, 198 Cultural adaptation kin discrimination, 166, 191, 198, 201, Baffin Island Inuit, 371 202-203 bowmaking example, 374-375 life cycles, 196 Central Inuit, 366-369, 370 lottery-like role assignment, 166, 191, cognitive ability and, 363, 364-366, 371- 202, 204-206 372, 380-381 as a model system, 191, 194, 195-199 cognitive biases and, 379 noble resistor genes, 166, 191, 208 essentiality for humans, 366-371 pleiotropy, 166, 191, 201, 202, 203-204 evidence for, 377-379 power asymmetries, 166, 206-208 food preparation practices and taboos, prestarvation factor, 195 378-379 rates of change in social genes, 191 and global expansion, 364 relatedness within social groups, 191, kayak keel design example, 375-376 197-198, 201-202 learning from others and, 363, 365, 366, sexual cycle, 209-210, 211 369-371, 372-377 single-gene knockouts, 200-201 lost European explorer experiment, 370

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Index / 441 social cycle, 191, 195-196 P-elements, 222 wild clones, 199-200 pesticide resistance, 231 Dictylostelium purpureum, 203, 209 segregation distorter, 223, 224 Didemnid ascidians, 32 temperature adaptation, 231 Dimorphopterus pallipes, 41 Wolbachia infection, 43, 229-230 Diplosoma spp., 41, 43 Diptera, 178 E DNA binding proteins, 221 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv Eavesdropping, 300, 327, 328-329 Dogon people of Mali Ecological constraints hypothesis, 70, 71, alloparenting, 299-300, 303, 304, 307, 72, 73, 80, 81 308-309, 311-312, 315 Endoriftia persephone, 30-31, 41 asymmetries in genetic relatedness and Escherichia coli, 92, 251 conflict, 309 restraint evolution in colicin producing behavioral data, 323 strains, 120-130 child growth determinants, 306-307, Salmonella enterica mutualism, 132 311-312, 316-319, 323 Eukaryotes, evolution of, 193 child survival determinants, 303, 308, Euprymna scolopes, 41 309-311, 313, 315-320, 322-323 Eusocial insects (see also Honey bees; Social conflicts of interest, 315 Hymenoptera; Termites) cooperative breeding hypothesis, 303, brain development and function, 171, 306, 308 176-177, 329 ethnographic background, 299, 305 chemical signaling, 173-176 fissioning of WEGs, 313-315, 323 cladogram, 169 genetic relatedness, 312-313 conditional helping, 13 grandparental investment, 312-313, core traits, 168 315-320 genes implicated in origin or kin selection theory and, 305, 306, 309, maintenance of, 170-172 312, 313-314, 315, 321 greenbeard genes, 18 maternal importance, 309-310 group effects, 20, 50 parental manipulation of children, 299- hygienic behaviors, 178 300, 307, 308 immunity genes, 170, 178-180 polygynous vs. monogamous families, laboratory-friendly models, 194-195 303, 305, 309-312 and kin selection theory, 2, 50, 56-59 power structure, 315 metabolism and nutrition genes, 172, reproductive success, 307 183-186 sex differences in work, 307 molecular genetic mechanisms in origin siblings, 306-308, 321 and maintenance, 165, 167-189 study population, 321 multiple mating by queens, 178 wealth, 310-311, 322 origins, 169 work–eat groups (WEGs), 308-315, prospects and challenges in molecular 321-322 evolution, 186-189 Drosophila, 179, 182, 185, 187 reproduction, 167, 180-182 cryptic X-drive systems, 224-225 worker policing, 2, 52-53 D. anannassae, 43, 229-230 D. melanogaster, 178, 186, 188, 220, 223, 224, 227, 231 F D. obscura, 213 D. simulans, 224-225, 231 Fairness an inequity aversion, 300, 325, 335, flamenco locus, 220 340, 342, 346, 347, 351, 360-361 gland patterning genes, 173 Falsebeards, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65 lateral gene transfers, 43, 229-230

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442 / Index Feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 340 and sexual maturation, 236, 265-272 Fire ants (Solenopsis), 18 sibs, 255, 261-262 GP-9 gene, 67, 171, 175-176 symmetric kin, 255, 259 Firebugs, 32-33 Global Malaria Action Plan, 241 Firmicutes, 34, 35 Greenbeard genes Fischman, Brielle J., 165, 167-189 alloparental care, 49-50, 66-67 Foster, Kevin R., 89, 137-164 altruistic, 17 Frank, Steven A., 236, 275-297 attractive traits, 66 Frankia spp., 30-31 bacterial–eukaryotic mutualisms, 18 Franklin Expedition of 1845–1846, 370 Crozier’s paradox, 56, 60, 66 Franklin, John, 370 eusocial insects, 56, 67 Frequency-dependent effects, xvi, 1, 7, 17, examples of behavior, 56 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 93, 110, 130, 182 facultative, 16, 18 falsebeard interaction with, 55-56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 65 G genetic kin recognition, 1, 49, 55, 56, 64 harmful, 16, 18 Game theory, 19-20, 300, 345-349 helpful, 16, 18, 56-61 Gamete killing, 224 interlocus conflict, 56, 57, 62 Generosity, 300, 345, 347, 349, 351-353, 359 key feature, 18 Genetic conflict (see also Genomic kin selection mechanisms, 55-56, 68 imprinting) kind selection, 5, 7, 16-19, 21, 24 defined, 216 multilocus, 56-57, 65-66 inbreeding, 259, 261, 287, 293-294, 295 nepotism, 65-67, 68 sex determination, 214, 217, 228, 230 obligate, 16, 18 types of, 216-218 payoff matrix, 19, 58 Genetic diversity, and social heterosis, 67-68 persistence of alleles, 60 Genetic drift, 24, 92, 93, 107, 110, 111 and phenotype matching, 57, 58, 59 Genome-eliminating supernumerary pheromonal communication, 175-176 chromosome, 214 and runaway social selection, 65-67 Genomic imprinting selection pressures, 66 adolescent sexual maturation, 236, and unicoloniality, 67 271-272 Group-level selection, 49, 50 asymmetries of relatedness and, 236, 253, 254-257, 262, 273 birth order and, 270-271 H blended vs. unblended relatedness, 268-269 Habitat saturation, 71 DNA methylation suppression of TEs Haig, David, 236, 253-274 and, 220, 230 Haldane’s rule, 225 effects of, 254, 259, 271, 281 Hamilton, William D., xvi, 50 epigenetic imprints, 280 Hamilton’s rule (see also Inclusive fitness) extended kinship, 26 defined, xvi, 50 fathers, 260-261, 264, 269-270, 273-274 and genetic diversity, 68 and fetal development, 260 and helping behavior, 49, 50, 55, 56-59, as genetic conflict, 218 60, 61-62, 63, 66, 67, 68 identifying genes, 282 indirect genetic effects, 11 kinship categories and, 257-263, 273-274 and kin discrimination, 258 kith and kin selection and, 263-264, 273 in kind selection, 16 mothers, 259-260, 264, 273 in kith selection, 12, 14, 15 partner change and, 253, 259, 262, 264- neighbor-modulated approach, 5, 6-7, 9, 265, 267-268 12, 14, 15, 22, 23

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Index / 443 Hamiltonian medicine, 235 Humans Haplodiplody hypothesis, 51 bacterial mutualisms, 30-31, 38 Harding, Brittany N., 88, 117-136 microbiome, 138, 154 Harvard University, vii-viii veil of ignorance model, 204 Hawk–Dove game, 20-21 vocal signals, 173 Hayes, Isaac, 371 Hybrid incompatibility genes, 225, 229, Henrich, Joseph, 301, 363-382 289-290, 291 Hepatoblastoma, 281 Hydrozoans, 56 Hexamerins, 184 Hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), 327, 337 Hitchhiking, 93, 110 Hymenoptera. See Social Hymenoptera Homing endonucleases, 223 Homo heidelbergensis, 364 I Honey bees (Apis mellifera), 53, 181-182, 183-184, 185, 187 Immunity genes, 171, 178, 179 brain-related genes, 165, 171 Imprinted genes (see Genomic imprinting) carbohydrate metabolism, 165, 185-186 Imprinting, learned, 257 cAMP/CREB signaling pathways, 171 Inclusive fitness (see also Hamilton’s rule; CREB binding protein, 171 Social selection) dance communication, 176, 177 indirect genetic effects, 21 hexamerins, 184 kith selection, 12-16 immunity genes, 165, 179 relatedness and, 24, 70 insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, social effects modeling, 8-10, 22, 24 165, 185 Indirect fitness gains, xvi, 7, 21, 50, 71, 73, juvenile hormone, 165, 185 75, 226, 255, 266, 272 (see also Kin Major Royal Jelly, 183-184 selection) metabolism and nutrition genes, 165- Indirect genetic effects, 8, 9, 11, 16, 261, 281 166, 172, 184 Infertility, 275, 277, 286, 290 molecular origins of sociality, 165, 169 Insects. See Social Hymenoptera; Social odorant receptor genes, 165, 174 insects queen pheromone 9-ODA, 174 Insider-outsider theory, 80-81 reproduction-related genes, 172, 181-182 Insulin growth factor gene (IGF2), 280-281, sex determination, 181-182 282, 291 social foraging behavior, 187 Interbirth intervals, 261 vitellogenin axis, 185 Interlocus conflice, 56, 57, 62 whole-genome sequence, 169 Intralocus antagonism, 287 Horizontal gene transfer bacterial mutualisms, 2, 30, 32, 36, 37-38, 40, 42, 43, 44-45, 46 J and endemic variation, 106 House, Bailey R., 300, 343-362 Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), 337 Huijben, Silvie, 235-236, 237-252 Jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis), 169 Human genome, transposable elements, 219 Human prosocial sentiments (see also K specific attributes) Kane, Elisha, 371 dimensions of, 345-346 Kerr, Benjamin, 88, 117-136 game theory applied to, 300, 345-349 Kin-directed behavior, 257 limits on altruistic preferences, 347 Kin recognition motives underlying altruism, 349-351 adhesion genes, 203 nonhuman primates compared to, cheating control, 166, 191, 198, 201, 350-355 202-203 phylogenetic foundations, 350

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444 / Index in eusocial insects, 49-50, 54-55, 56, Long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus), 73 64-65 Lotus strigosus, 41 greenbeard genes and, 7, 16-19, 55-59 phenotype matching, 55, 56, 57, 264 M Kin selection altruism, 50 Malaria caste-rearing nepotism and, 54, 55 cases per year, 247 conditional helping, 13 fitness effects drug resistance, 243-246 defined, 6-7, 263 genetic diversity of infections, 242-243 environmental cues, 55 radical pathogen cure, 235, 237, 238, failures, 51 241, 246 genetic recognition, 55 resistance to drugs, 240-241 genetic relatedness and, 67-68 rodent model, 242, 243-244 greenbeard genes, 1, 7, 16-19, 55-59 treatment goals, 241 group selection hypothesis, 54-55 vector control, 252 haplodiplody hypothesis, 51 Manipulation, 1, 13, 15, 40 heritability of the indirect selection Marmosets, 343, 357 effect, 16 Maternal effect dominant embryonic arrest monogamy hypothesis, 51 (Medea) system, 227 multilevel selection models, 7 Maternally expressed factors, 227, 259, 260, neighbor-modulated approach, 5, 6-7, 9, 261, 271, 277, 280, 282, 283, 284, 285, 12, 14, 15, 22, 23 291 phenotypic gambit, 11 Meiotic drive elements, 166, 213, 214, 216, reproductive skew theory and, 54 218, 223-225, 230, 288 successes, 51 Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, Kind selection 155-156 defined, 1, 5, 263-264 Microbes (see Bacterial; Dictyostelium greenbeard genes, 1, 5, 7, 16-19, 21, 24, discoideum; Multispecies biofilms; 264 Myxococcus xanthus) kin selection compared to, 16-19 examples of natural microbial phenotype matching, 264 communities, 138-139 Kinship social interactions, 87-89, 138-139, 192 asymmetric, 236, 253, 254-257 Mitochondria, 2, 32, 37-38, 193, 214, 227, and cheating, 191, 197-198, 201-202 228, 287-288 instinctive categories vs. cultural Mitri, Sara, 89, 137-164 classification, 258 Monogamy, 3, 51, 189, 303, 319 symmetric, 259 Multispecies biofilms Kith selection (see also Mutualisms) cell–cell adhesion and, 158 defined, 1, 2, 5, 12-16, 264 abundance of additional species, multiple partners, 24 147-148 phenotypic expression and, 13 between-species cooperation, 155-156 Kraemer, Susanne A., 88, 91-115 bottlenecks, 151, 157 characteristics of communities, 140 competition among microbial groups, L 150-154 Language development, 260, 285, 365 ecological competition in, 144-147, 150- Leishmania, 221-222 154, 157 Life-history theory, 273 examples, 138-139 Lion (Panthera leo), 340 fitness calculations, 161 Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), human microbiome, 138, 154 339

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Index / 445 invasion analysis, 150-151, 152-153, 157, chimeric load, 109 162-163 coevolution, 91, 93, 109, 111 model framework, 158-161 conflict, within-group, 111 motility and, 158 DNA sequencing and phylogenetic mutualism constraints, 148-150, 152-153, analysis, 114-115 154-157 endemic variation, 91, 93, 106 nutrient concentration and diffusion genetic structure of fruiting body rate, 89, 142-143, 147, 150-153, 154, groups, 91, 92-93, 94, 98-100, 102, 158 104, 106 quorum sensing, 88, 140, 154 horizontal gene transfer, 106 secretor/nonsecretor models, 88-89, kin selection, 93, 109 141-154, 158-161 laboratory origin of minority segregation index, 162 phenotypes, control for, 104-105, Simpson’s paradox, 150 113-114 single-species simulation, 142-144, 151 maintenance of social diversity, 110-111 size of the growth area, 146-147 migration into “foreign” groups, 91, social insulation, 89, 147-148, 154, 157- 93-94, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111 158, 162 model of population biology, 108, 194 social phenotypes, 139-140 motility systems, 92, 95 spatial structure and, 89, 137, 139, 140, phage transduction, 106 149, 151, 152-153, 154-155, 158 phase variation, 105-106 statistical analysis, 163 phenotypic and genetic diversity, 88, 94, within-species cooperation, 89, 155-156 95, 98-100 Multicellularity, cooperation, 193 phylogenetic relationships, 102-103 Mutualisms (see also Bacterial-eukaryotic regeneration of clonality, 110 mutualisms) sample collection and strain isolation, between-species cooperation, 155-156, 94, 111-112 157, 210 social conflict within groups, 91 cheating in, 2, 40-41, 46 spore production, 87, 91, 92, 97, 101-102, chemotaxis and, 156, 158 105, 107 complex, 15 sporulation assays, 113 Hamilton’s rule and, 12, 15 starvation response, 87-88, 92, 104 inclusive fitness modeling, 6, 7, 12 statistical analyses, 114 inoculation density on agar plates and, swarming motility assays, 111-112 156-157 swarming phenotypes, 91, 95-97, 102, multispecies simulation, 148-150, 105 154-157 territorial kin discrimination, 94, 107, 110 nutrient competition and, 155-156 partner choice and partner fidelity N feedback, 13, 24 spatial structure and ecological Nahum, Joshua R., 88, 117-136 feedback and, 131 Nasonia wasps, 169, 178, 179, 182, 227, 229 social selection, 1, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 24 Nasutitermes termites, 179, 180 within-species cooperation, 155-156, 157 Neanderthals, 364 “Mycetocyte” bacteria, 32-33, 37-38 Neotermes koshunensis, 175 Myxococcus xanthus Nepotism, 49, 50, 51, 53-54, 55, 56, 64, 65, balancing selection, 110 66, 68, 263, 347 cell–cell adhesion, 94, 95, 97, 107 Netsilik, 366, 370 cheater–cooperator population Neurospora, 220 dynamics, 110 New York University, vii cheater strains with social defects, 88, Nitrogen fixation, 30, 32, 37, 38, 39, 40 93, 107-109

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446 / Index Nonacs, Peter, 2, 49-68 Paternally expressed factors, 259, 260-261, Nonadditive fitness effects, 18, 19, 20-21, 22 271, 277, 278, 280, 282, 283, 284 Nonhuman primates (see Chimpanzees; Pathology from evolutionary conflict Vertebrate cooperation; other cancer, 236, 237, 252, 275, 277, 278-282 individual species) growth conflict, 236, 275, 276-277, 278- altruistic social preferences in, 350-359 285, 290, 291-292 fairness and inequity aversion, 360-361 maternally expressed factors, 277, 280, punishment of conspecifics, 360 282, 283, 284, 285, 291 Nontransitivity model of opposing forces, 275, 278, 279, in male mating systems, 129 284, 286, 292-293 in overgrowth patterns, 129 morphology and feeding-related prevalence in natural ecosystems, behavior, 277, 282-283 129-130 paternally expressed factors, 277, 280, and restraint evolution in E. coli, 119- 282, 283, 284 120, 121, 122, 127, 128, 129-130 psychiatric disorders, 236, 275, 277, 283- spatial structure and, 130 285, 290, 291-292 in sperm competition, 129 sexual conflict, 285-287 victim–exploiter relationships, 129-130 Pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), 178-179 Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), 305 Peking University, viii O Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum, 155-156 Phenotype matching, 56, 57, 264 Odorant receptor genes, 174 Philanthus triangulum, 41 Oxytocin, 285 Photosynthates, 32-33, 38 Pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), 339, 341 Pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), P 326-327 piRNA pathway, 171, 172, 181, 220, 222 Paper wasps (Polistes dominulus), 177, 329 Planctomycetes, 34, 35 Parasitism Plasmids, 218, 234 bacterial, 28 antibiotic resistance, 219 manipulation of host reproduction, 40 colicin, 120, 132 restraint in host–parasite systems, 131 killer, 214, 226 social, 198, 199, 202 R-M system, 226 transition from mutualism, 45, 46 Ti, 18-19, 24 transition to mutualism, 2, 30-31, 35, Plasmodium falciparum, 242, 244 36-37, 46, 47 Plasmodium chabaudi, 242, 243, 244 vertical transmission, 42 Pleiotropy, 166, 191, 201, 202, 203-204 virulence/infectivity, 131 Pogo elements, 221 Parent-offspring conflict, 236, 260, 265, 271, Polar Inuit, 371 272 Polygamy, 51 Parental manipulation of offspring, 189, Polygyny, 175, 262, 299, 303, 305, 309, 310, 299, 306, 307 311-312, 317, 319, 321 Partner choice Populus, 221 in bacterial mutualism, 31, 33, 38, 39, 40, Power 41-42, 46 age and, 262, 315 in kith selection, 13, 24 asymmetries, 166, 202, 206-208, 261-262 Partner fidelity feedback condition-based, 207 in bacterial mutualism, 31, 33, 38-40, conflict control by, 206-208, 211 41-42 first-strike, 206 in kith selection, 13, 14, 15, 24 mediation of competition and, 207-208 Parthenogenesis, 228, 229 sibs, 261-262, 306

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Index / 447 Poxviruses, 219 positive assortment and, 118, 120, 121, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), 260, 271, 125, 129, 131-132 282-283, 285 rock–paper–scissors game, 88, 119-120 Predation/predators, 24 (see also simulation of ecoevolutionary Myxococcus xanthus) dynamics, 124-127, 134-135, 136 and horizontal gene transfer, 42 spatial structure and, 130-131 Price’s equation, 8, 9, 10 survival of the weakest, 119 Princeton University, vii in victim–exploiter communities, Prochloron spp., 32-33, 41 130-131 Prosocial Test, 351-356 Restriction-modification (R-M) systems, 226 Proteobacteria, 34, 35, 36, 87, 92 (see also Reticulitermes flavipes, 184 Myxococcus xanthus) Retinoblastoma, 281 Pseudogenes, 221 Retrogenes, 221 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 151, 153 Retroposons, 218, 219, 221-222 Pseudonocardia spp., 30-31 Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), 327, Public goods games, 347 329-331 Pufferfish, 219 Rhizobia, 30-31, 32, 36, 39, 40, 44 Punishment of cheaters, 40, 300, 330, 332, Rhizobiales, 36 340, 341, 342, 346, 347, 348, 349, 360, Richerson, Peter J., 301, 363-382 361 Rickettsia, 42 Riftia pachyptila, 41 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 340 Q Robinson, Gene E., 165, 167-189 Rubenstein, Dustin R., 3, 69-85 Queller, David C., 1, 5-25, 166, 191-211 Runaway social selection, 67 Quorum sensing, 88, 140, 154, 192, 195-196 S R Sachs, Joel L., 2, 27-47 Ravens (Corvus corax), 300, 330 Sackler, Arthur M., vii-viii. See also Arthur Read, Andrew F., 235-236, 237-252 M. Sackler Colloquium Reciprocity, 12, 13, 15 Sackler, Jillian, vii, viii Regus, John U., 27-47 Salmonella enterica, 131 Reproductive skew theory, 49, 51, 53-54, 55, Schizophrenia, vii, 236, 254, 284, 285 64, 65, 68 Scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica), 330 Restraint, evolution of Self-splicing introns, 218-219, 223 in colicin producing E. coli strains, 88, Selfish genetic elements 120-130, 132-135 B (supernumerary) chromosomes, 166, competition assay, 133-134 213-214, 223-224, 227 defined, 118 clade selection hypothesis, 232 ecological dynamics, 120, 121-122, 128- defined, 214 129, 132 domestication, co-option, or exaptation, evolution of resistant strain, 122-124 221 experimental treatments, 132-133 “epi-transposon” hypothesis, 222 in host–parasite communities, 131 evolutionary function, 166, 216, 230-233, in hypercycle communities, 131 234 Lotka-Volterra model, 130 gene converters, 223 migration patterns and, 88, 121-122, 127, and genetic conflict, 214, 215, 216-218, 130, 132, 134-135 224, 228 in nontransitive communities, 88, 119- harmful effects, 220, 218-233 120, 121, 122, 127, 128, 129-131 host dependency, 216

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448 / Index imprinted genes, 166 (see also Genomic Silk, Joan B., 300, 343-362 imprinting) Silver-Russell syndrome, 271, 282, 283 interspecies lateral transfers, 219, 222, Skophammer, Ryan G., 27-47 229-230 Slave making, 176 meiotic drive elements, 166, 213, 214, Slime molds, 56 216, 218, 223-225, 230, 288 Social brain hypothesis, 177 modification-rescue systems, 166, 225, Social effects, modeling, 8-10 226, 227, 228, 234 Social foraging behavior, 187 organellar genes, 166, 214, 217-218, Social heterosis, 67-68 227-230 Social Hymenoptera parasitic hypothesis, 215, 216, 228, 229, caste-biasing nepotism, 49, 50, 51, 53, 230, 231, 232-233, 234 54, 55, 56, 64, 65-67, 68 postsegregation distorters, 225-227, 229 environmental cues, 49, 55, 56, 58, 64-65 safe havens, 216, 220, 222, 223 genetic recognition, 2-3, 49, 55 transposons and other mobile elements, greenbeard traits, 2-3, 49, 55-60, 65-67 166, 214, 215, 217, 218, 220, 221-222, haplodiplody hypothesis, 51 230-233, 234 immune gene evolution, 178-180 types and consequences, 218-233 kin recognition, 2-3, 49-50, 54-55, 64-65 Selfish-herd defense, 20 kin selection mechanisms, 50-51, 54-59, SETMAR gene, 221 67-68 Sex chromosome drive, 223, 224-225 male parentage conflicts (worker Sex ratios, 2, 40, 51, 64, 227, 230, 276 policing), 2, 49, 51, 52-53 Sexual conflict (see also Genomic monogamy hypothesis, 3, 51 imprinting) reproductive skew theory, 2, 49, 51, Gaussian fitness function, 296 53-54, 55, 64, 65, 68 genetic models of sexually antagonistic runaway social selection, 49-50 traits, 296 sex investment ratios, 2, 49, 51-52 quadratic fitness, 294 simulating evolution of cooperation, sex-limited traits, 277, 285-286, 291 2-3, 49, 56-59 sexual antagonism over trait with same Social immunity, 178 fitness consequences, 277, 286-290, Social selection 291 byproduct social effects, 11 X inactivation consequences, 295 causality, 6, 7, 8, 10-11, 14 X vs. autosome theory, 236, 275-276, Hamilton’s rule and, 5-6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 277, 287-290, 293-296 15, 16, 22, 23, 49, 55, 56-59 Sexual maturation indirect genetic effects approach, 8, 21 adolescence, 271-272 kind selection, 5, 6, 7, 16-23 another-mouth-to-feed scenario, 266- kith selection, 5, 6, 7, 12-16 267, 269 indirect genetic effects, 11 birth order and, 270-271 modeling social effects, 8-10 blended vs. unblended relatedness, mutualisms, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 24 268-269 neighbor-modulated approach, 5, 6-7, 9, effects of imprinted genes, 271 12, 14, 15, 22, 23 father absence and, 269-270 phenotype matching, 6, 9, 10, 11-12, 13, genomic imprinting and, 265-272 14-15, 22, 23, 57-59 helper-at-the-nest scenario, 267, 268-270, reciprocity, 12, 13, 15 271 runaway, 67 life expectancy and, 266 selfish effects, 24 partner change and, 267-268 social causality, 6, 9, 10, 11-12, 14 pygmies, 266 population structure (relatedness) and, Siblings, conflict, 261-262 6, 10 Side-blotch lizards (Uta stansburiana), 56, 129 separation condition, 6, 10

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Index / 449 Staphylococcus aureus, 151, 153 Velicer, Gregory J., 88, 91-115 State University of New York at Stony Vertebrate cooperation Brook, viii attribution of intentions, 300, 325, 326, Stinkbugs, 30-31, 40-41, 43 329-331 Strassmann, Beverly I., 299, 303-324 attribution of knowledge, 326, 331-332 Strassmann, Joan E., 166, 191-211 cognitive constraints, 334-335 Streptomyces philanthi, 32-33, 41 contingent altruism measures, 325, Stromatolites, 138, 139 336-339 Superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), 69, detection of noncooperators, 325, 74-84 (see Cooperative breeding) 340-342 Superorganisms, 2 emotional constraints, 335-336 mechanisms, 332-334 recognition of others’ relationships, 300, T 326-329 Vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), 300, 327, 333, Tamarins, 343, 357-358 340 Termites (see also Eusocial insects) Vibrio fischeri, 30-31, 38, 40, 41, 45, 155 hexamerins, 184, 187 Viviparous lizards, 129 immune gene evolution, 171, 179-180 Volvocales, 193 juvenile hormone, 184 metabolism and nutrition genes, 165- 166, 172, 184 W origins of eusociality, 169 queen pheromone gene (Neofem2), 175, Wasps, 300 (see also Social Hymenoptera) 187 immunity genes, 178 within-colony competition, 153, 154 origins of eusociality, 169, 177, 187-188 Third-Party Punishment Game, 346 Water fern, 32-33, 43 Ti plasmid, 18-19, 24 Weaning, 260, 283, 319 Tragedy of the commons, 130-131 Werren, John H., 166, 213-234 Transposons, 166, 215, 217, 218-219 West Greenland Inuit, 375 Tribolium beetles, 227 Wilms’ tumor, 281 Trichogramma wasps, 227 Wolbachia, 40, 42, 43, 228-230, 234 Trust, 300, 345, 347, 348 Woodard, S. Hollis, 165, 167-189 Trust Game, 345, 348 World Health Organization, 240, 311 Tubeworms, 30-31, 41 Tufted capuchins, 360 X X inactivation, 287, 293, 294, 295 U Xavier, João B., 89, 137-164 Ubiquitin pathway, 283 Ultimatum Games, 345-346, 348, 360 Y Unicoloniality, 50, 67, 68 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Yeast, 56, 226 Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage site, 305 United States Agency for International Z Development, 305 Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), 328 V Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), 338

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