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Dictyostelium discoideum, 166, 198–201, 211

distinguishing, 40–41, 340–341

facultative, 198, 199, 200

falsebeards, 55

fixed, 198, 199, 200

kin discrimination and, 166, 191, 198, 201, 202–203

lottery-like role assignment and, 166, 191, 202, 204–206

Myxococcus xanthus, 88, 93, 107–109, 110

noble resistor genes and, 166, 191, 208

pleiotropy and, 166, 191, 201, 202, 203–204

primate insensitivity to, 325, 332, 340–341

punishment of, 40, 300, 330, 332, 340, 341, 342, 346, 348, 349, 360, 361

relatedness within social groups and, 191, 197–198, 201–202

by single-gene knockouts, 200–201

social parasites, 198, 199, 202

by wild clones, 199–200

Chemotherapy (see also Antibiotic)

aims of patient treatment, 239–240

cancer, 252

combination drug therapy, 237

multiple-strain infection and, 235–236

radical pathogen cure, 235, 237, 238, 241, 246

social structure of the pathogen and, 235

Cheney, Dorothy L., 300, 325–342

Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), 300, 327

Chickens, meiotic drive in, 225

Chimeras/chimerism, 191, 197–198, 200, 221

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

attribution of intentions, 330, 332

cognitive constraints, 335, 365, 366, 380

cultural adaptation, 378, 380, 381

contingent altruism, 337–338, 360

detection of noncooperators, 340

emotional constraints, 336

generosity in, 351–353

helping behavior, 353–355

inequity aversion, 361

prosocial sentiments and behavior, 343, 351–356, 381

recognition of others’relationships, 300, 328

Chlorobi, 34, 35

Chloroflexi, 34, 35

Cichlid fish (Astatotilapia burtoni), 328

Clark University, vii

Clostridium difficile, 251

Cognitive ability, and cultural adaptation, 363, 364–366, 371–372, 380–381

Coloration, warning, 20

Conflict (see also Cheaters/cheating; Genetic conflict; Genomic imprinting; Pathology from evolutionary conflict; Sexual conflict)

condition-based power, 207

controls, 193, 206–208

in Dictyostelium discoideum, 166, 191, 200, 206–208, 210–211

embryo-maternal, 236, 260

first-strike power, 206

insider-outsider theory, 80–81

interlocus, 56, 57, 62

male parentage (worker policing), 2, 49, 51, 52–53

in model organisms of cooperation, 193–194

parent-offspring, 236, 260, 265, 271, 272

power asymmetries and, 166, 202, 206–208, 261–262

resolution during group formation of breeding birds, 80

siblings, 261–262

weaning, 260

within-group, 91, 111

Consanguineous matings, 264

Cooperation (see also Vertebrate cooperation)

laboratory-friendly models, 194–195

and major transitions in evolution, 193–194

Cooperative breeding in birds

among-generation bet-hedging, 73, 82

benefits of philopatry hypothesis, 71, 72, 80, 81

climatic uncertainty and reproductive success, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77–78, 79, 81, 82, 83–84

conflict resolution during group formation, 80

ecological constraints hypothesis, 3, 70, 71, 72, 73, 80, 81

environmental quality (temporal variation) and, 69, 70–72, 73–74, 79–82

fecundity variance, 3, 69, 72, 74, 77–78, 82

fitness optimization, 72



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