CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATION

Goals, Audiences, and Strategies

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Sherrie Forrest and Michael A. Feder, Rapporteurs

Board on Science Education

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                                                 OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Sherrie Forrest and Michael A. Feder, Rapporteurs Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi - neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DUE-0956031 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, find - ings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21845-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21845-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover credit: Cover images from top: © PhotoDisc, © iStockphoto.com/adisa, NOAA photo by Will von Dauster, © PhotoDisc. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2011). Climate Change Education: Goals, Audiences, and Strategies. A Workshop Summary. S. Forrest and M.A. Feder, Rapporteurs. Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sci - ences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern - ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem - bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis - ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro - viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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STEERING COMMITTEE ON CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES JOSEPH E. HEIMLICH (Chair), The Ohio State University and Institute for Learning Innovation CHARLES W. ANDERSON, Department of Teacher Education, Michigan State University DAVID BLOCKSTEIN, National Council for Science and the Environment ANN BOSTROM, Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington WÄNDI BRUINE DE BRUIN, Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University EDWARD MAIBACH, Center for Climate Change Communication, George Mason University MICHAEL A. FEDER, Study Director SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director, Board on Science Education PAUL C. STERN, Director, Committee on Human Dimensions of Global Change REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate ANTHONY BROWN, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION HELEN R. QUINN (Chair), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University PHILIP BELL, Learning Sciences, LIFE Center, University of Washington GEORGE R. BOGGS, American Association of Community Colleges WILLIAM B. BONVILLIAN, MIT Washington Office, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Washington, DC JOSEPH S. FRANCISCO, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University ADAM GAMORAN, Department of Sociology and Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin–Madison JERRY P. GOLLUB, Natural Sciences and Physics Departments, Haverford College MARGARET A. HONEY, New York Hall of Science JANET HUSTLER, Partnership for Student Success in Science (PS3), Synopsys, Inc. SUSAN W. KIEFFER, Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign BRETT D. MOULDING, Utah Partnership for Effective Science Teaching and Learning CARLO PARRAVANO, Merck Institute for Science Education SUSAN R. SINGER, Department of Biology, Carleton College WILLIAM B. WOOD, Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder MARTIN STORKSDIECK, Director HEIDI A. SCHWEINGRUBER, Deputy Director MICHAEL A. FEDER, Senior Program Officer MARGARET HILTON, Senior Program Officer THOMAS E. KELLER, Senior Program Officer NATALIE NIELSEN, Senior Program Officer SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer REBECCA KRONE, Program Associate ANTHONY BROWN, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments This workshop summary is based on discussions at a workshop con- vened by the Board on Science Education (BOSE), in collaboration with the Committee on Human Dimensions of Global Change and the Division on Earth and Life Studies, of the National Research Council (NRC) on October 21 and 22, 2010. We thank our colleagues who served on the steer- ing committee for the workshop, each of whom brought deep and varied expertise to the process of planning the workshop. The members of the steering committee developed the agenda, identified presenters, selected presenters and paper authors, and facilitated discussion throughout the workshop. Although they did not participate in writing this report, this summary reflects the insightful comments of the steering committee members, presenters and many of the workshop participants. The work- shop was generously supported by the National Science Foundation as part of the NRC Roundtable on Climate Change Education. This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Commit- tee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsive- ness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard M. Amasino, Depart- vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ment of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin–Madison; Ann E. Benbow, Education, Outreach and Development, American Geological Institute; Edward Maibach, Center for Climate Change Communication, George Mason University; Matthew C. Nisbet, School of Communication, Ameri - can University; Louie Rivers, Departments of Criminal Justice and Envi - ronmental Science and Policy Program, Michigan State University; Lloyd M. Robeson, College of Engineering, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Purdue University; and Ponisseril Somasundaran, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Columbia University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Cary I. Sneider, Portland State University. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accor- dance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. We are grateful for the leadership and support of Martin Storksdieck, director of the Board on Science Education; Paul Stern, director of the Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change; and Michael Feder, senior program officer with the Board on Science Education. We thank Michael Feder and Sherrie Forrest, associate program officer with BOSE and the Ocean Studies Board for serving as rapporteurs of the workshop, and Margaret Hilton, senior program officer with BOSE for her valuable contributions and considerable work on this summary. Rebecca Krone deserves our thanks for her flawless logistical support throughout the project; and Amanda Purcell for logistical support at the workshop. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the support of the Executive and the Reports Office of the NRC Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion (NOAA) for hosting the workshop. Joseph E. Heimlich, Chair Steering Committee on Climate Change Education Goals and Objectives

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Contents Acronyms xi 1 Introduction and Goals of Climate Change Education 1 2 Climate Change Education Goals and Outcomes for Various Public Audiences 19 3 Implications of Audience Research and Segmentation for Education Strategies 35 4 Major Messages 51 References 61 Appendixes A Workshop Agenda and List of Participants 65 B Climate Change Education Roundtable 75 C Biographical Sketches of Presenters, Steering Committee Members, and Staff 77 ix

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Acronyms CCEP Climate Change Education Partnership Program CLEAN Climate Literacy Education Awareness Network Pathway CWM conservative white male EPA Environmental Protection Agency IPL Interfaith Power and Light NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation NWF National Wildlife Federation USGCRP U.S. Global Climate Research Program xi

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