TABLE 5-1 Descriptions of Health IT Products and Functionalities

Product or Functionality Description
Electronic health record (EHR) An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards and that can be created, managed, and consulted by authorized clinicians and staff across more than one health care organization
 
Electronic medical record (EMR) An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that can be created, gathered, managed, and consulted by authorized clinicians and staff within one health care organization
 
Personal health record (PHR) An electronic record of an individual’s health-related information that is managed, shared, and controlled by the individual. May conform to nationally recognized interoperability standards. Health-related information may be drawn from multiple sources (e.g., providers, insurance claims, pharmacy data).
 
e-prescribing (eRx) Enables a physician to transmit a prescription electronically to the patient’s pharmacy. Also enables physicians and pharmacies to obtain information about the patient’s eligibility and medication history from drug plans. May come with alerts for drug-drug, drug-allergy, and drug-disease interactions
 
Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) A computer-based system of ordering medications and other tests. Physicians enter orders into a computer system that can have varying levels of sophistication. Basic CPOE ensures standardized, legible, complete orders and thus primarily reduces errors due to poor handwriting and ambiguous abbreviations
Clinical decision support (CDS) Any system designed to improve clinical decision making related to diagnostic or therapeutic processes of care. Addresses activities ranging from the selection of drugs or diagnostic tests to detailed support for optimal drug dosing and support for resolving diagnostic dilemmas. Often incorporated as part of CPOE or EMR-EHR systems

SOURCE: Adapted from Detmer et al., 2008; HHS, 2008; Moiduddin and Moore, 2008.

interoperability1 standards and can be used by providers across more than one health care organization (HHS, 2008). Personal health records (PHRs) are electronic records of a patient’s health-related information that are controlled by the patient and can be shared with others, such as providers and family members. PHRs are usually web based so that patients may access

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1In health care, interoperability refers to the ability of different IT systems and software applications to communicate; to exchange data accurately, effectively, and consistently; and to use the information that has been exchanged (HHS, 2008).



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