training environment described above would be prohibitively expensive within current and foreseen budgets. The acquisition costs of specialized simulators, for example, would be significant. However, as noted throughout this appendix, the most important tasks must be trained to the level of skill-based behavior and to the extent that the astronauts can apply effective stress responses, and this requires training in real, stressful environments. Thus, sufficient training cannot be provided only in cheaper, low-fidelity simulations or classroom environments.



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