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B Acronyms and Glossary Apollo The 1961-1975 space program that followed the Gemini program. ASCAN Astronaut candidate. ATV Automated transfer vehicle. A European uncrewed resupply spacecraft. C3PO Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office (NASA). CCDev Commercial Crew Development. CoFR Certification of Flight Readiness. COTS Commercial Orbital Transportation Services. CRM Crew resource management. CSA Canadian Space Agency. CST-100 Space capsule in development by Boeing; it could carry up to seven astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and launch from a variety of rockets, including Atlas, Delta, and Falcon 9 rockets. Cygnus Space capsule in development by Orbital Sciences; it is designed to carry cargo from the Earth to the ISS and to dispose of ISS waste. It is not, however, designed for reentry into Earth’s atmo- sphere and will not transport cargo back to Earth. Dragon Space capsule in development by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX); it is designed to carry cargo to and from the ISS. Dream Chaser Spacecraft in development by Sierra Nevada Corporation; it is designed to launch from an Atlas V launch vehicle and to carry up to seven astronauts and cargo to the ISS. It will return to Earth by way of a conventional runway landing, allowing it to bring back cargo from the ISS. ESA European Space Agency. EVA Extravehicular activity. Also known as a “spacewalk.” FCOD Flight Crew Operations Directorate. Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center. FRR Flight Readiness Review. Gemini The 1965-1966 space program that was the follow-up to the Mercury program. Gemini missions included the first spacewalk. 95
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96 PREPARING FOR THE HIGH FRONTIER GRT Generic robotics training. HTV H-II Transfer Vehicle. A Japanese uncrewed resupply spacecraft. ISS International Space Station. JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. JSC Johnson Space Center. LEO Low Earth orbit. Generally considered to be between 160 and 2,000 km above Earth’s surface. MCC Mission Control Center. Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Mercury First human spaceflight program in the United States; it ran from 1959 to 1963 and included the first American to orbit Earth. Mir Russian space station, operational from 1986 to 2001. MMR Minimum Manifest Requirement. The minimum number of astronauts required to sustain a human spaceflight operation as determined by model input, including spaceflight program requirements and the 5-year rotation plan (see Chapter 2). MOD Mission Operations Directorate. Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center. MPCV Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (NASA). It is based on the design of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NBL Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Located at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, it is an astronaut training facility consisting of a large indoor pool of water used to simulate a low-gravity environment during astronaut training in the performance of various mission tasks. NRC National Research Council. Orion Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This spacecraft, in development by Lockheed Martin, is designed to carry four astronauts to the Moon or six astronauts to the ISS and to sustain a crew for 21.1 days. PMMT Pre-launch Mission Management Team. RMS Remote Manipulator System. Also known as the robotic arm used on the space shuttle. RSA Russian Space Agency. SES Dome Shuttle Engineering Simulator Dome. SFRT Spaceflight readiness training. Operational environments in which the crew is trained for spaceflight. Skylab Crewed U.S. space station in orbit from 1973 to 1979. SLS Space Launch System. SORR Stage Operations Readiness Review. Soyuz Russian spacecraft used since the 1960s to deliver cosmonauts and astronauts to space. Spacelab Reusable laboratory that flew on 22 space shuttle flights from November 1983 to August 1998. SSPCB Space Studies Program Control Board. Star City The site of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia. T-38N Two-person jet specifically outfitted for NASA’s astronaut training needs. UPT Undergraduate Pilot Training.