GRT Generic robotics training.
   
HTV

H-II Transfer Vehicle. A Japanese uncrewed resupply spacecraft.

   
ISS

International Space Station.

   
JAXA

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

JSC

Johnson Space Center.

   
LEO

Low Earth orbit. Generally considered to be between 160 and 2,000 km above Earth’s surface.

   
MCC

Mission Control Center. Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

Mercury

First human spaceflight program in the United States; it ran from 1959 to 1963 and included the first American to orbit Earth.

Mir

Russian space station, operational from 1986 to 2001.

MMR

Minimum Manifest Requirement. The minimum number of astronauts required to sustain a human spaceflight operation as determined by model input, including spaceflight program requirements and the 5-year rotation plan (see Chapter 2).

MOD

Mission Operations Directorate. Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center.

MPCV

Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (NASA). It is based on the design of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle.

   
NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NBL

Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. Located at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, it is an astronaut training facility consisting of a large indoor pool of water used to simulate a low-gravity environment during astronaut training in the performance of various mission tasks.

NRC

National Research Council.

   
Orion

Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This spacecraft, in development by Lockheed Martin, is designed to carry four astronauts to the Moon or six astronauts to the ISS and to sustain a crew for 21.1 days.

   
PMMT

Pre-launch Mission Management Team.

   
RMS

Remote Manipulator System. Also known as the robotic arm used on the space shuttle.

RSA

Russian Space Agency.

   
SES Dome

Shuttle Engineering Simulator Dome.

SFRT

Spaceflight readiness training. Operational environments in which the crew is trained for spaceflight.

Skylab

Crewed U.S. space station in orbit from 1973 to 1979.

SLS

Space Launch System.

SORR

Stage Operations Readiness Review.

Soyuz

Russian spacecraft used since the 1960s to deliver cosmonauts and astronauts to space.

Spacelab

Reusable laboratory that flew on 22 space shuttle flights from November 1983 to August 1998.

SSPCB

Space Studies Program Control Board.

Star City

The site of the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia.

   
T-38N

Two-person jet specifically outfitted for NASA’s astronaut training needs.

   
UPT

Undergraduate Pilot Training.



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