research, as deputy associate director for biological sciences and applications, and as associate director, technology integration and risk management. Dr. Dunbar retired from NASA in 2005. She received B.S. and M.S. degrees in ceramic engineering from the University of Washington and her Ph.D. in mechanical and biomedical engineering from the University of Houston. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

WILLIAM W. HOOVER has held executive positions in national aviation, defense, and energy activities and in recent years has been a consultant in these areas. He is the former executive vice president of the Air Transport Association of America, representing the interests of the major U.S. airlines industry, particularly related to technical, safety, and security issues. Prior to holding this position, he served as the assistant secretary, defense programs, U.S. Department of Energy, where he was responsible for all aspects of the U.S. nuclear weapons development program. He is also a major general, U.S. Air Force (retired), and had responsible positions in the Air Force Space Program, within NATO, at the Pentagon with the Secretary of the Air Force, and in Vietnam, where he commanded a combat air wing and flew 97 missions as a fighter pilot. He has served as chair of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board of the National Research Council. He has been the chair or a member on behalf of the Academy on several studies for NASA, DOD, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that resulted in significant policy or technology implementations. He has served on corporate boards and as a member of the NASA Advisory Council. He currently is on the board of the Virginia Air and Space Center, Hampton, Virginia. He holds a B.S. in engineering from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology and is a Distinguished Graduate of the National War College and a lifetime National Associate of the National Academies.

THOMAS D. JONES is senior research scientist with the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition and a planetary science consultant to NASA and the aerospace community. He is a writer and speaker, and he serves on the board of directors of the Association of Space Explorers. As a NASA astronaut and mission specialist, Dr. Jones logged more than 52 days in space on four shuttle missions. He helped direct science operations on STS-59 (Space Radar Laboratory 1), was payload commander for STS-68 (Space Radar Laboratory 2), and helped deliver the Destiny laboratory to the ISS on STS-98. His previous positions include senior scientist for the Science Applications International Corporation, program management engineer at the Central Intelligence Agency, and B-52 pilot and aircraft commander for the USAF. He has published six books and is a member of the American Astronomical Society and the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Jones received a B.S. in basic sciences from the U.S. Air Force Academy and a planetary science Ph.D. from the University of Arizona.

FRANKLIN D. MARTIN is the president of Martin Consulting, Inc., which provides services in aerospace, including his participation on review boards for NASA flight projects. Dr. Martin has also been working with 4-D Systems since 2002. Sponsored by NASA’s Office of the Chief Engineer’s Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, the major focus of 4-D Systems is performance enhancement for NASA teams. His career with NASA and Lockheed Martin includes the following: science mission operations on Apollo 16 and Apollo 17; director, Solar Terrestrial and Astrophysics at NASA Headquarters (included the Sounding Rocket and Balloon Programs); Goddard Space Flight Center director for Space and Earth Science; NASA deputy associate administrator, Space Station; NASA associate administrator for Human Exploration; and director, Space Systems and Engineering, Civil Space for Lockheed Martin, with responsibility for the HST servicing missions, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (Spitzer), Lunar Prospector, and Gravity Probe-B. Dr. Martin resigned from NASA in 1990 and retired from Lockheed Martin in 2001. He received a B.A. with majors in physics and in mathematics from Pfeiffer University and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Tennessee.

HENRY McDONALD is the Distinguished Professor and Chair of Computational Engineering at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Dr. McDonald worked in the aerospace industry of the United Kingdom on a number of civil and military aircraft before immigrating to the United States. In the United States, he was a staff member at United Technologies Research Center, where he concentrated on turbomachinery, which eventually became known as computational fluid dynamics. Dr. McDonald then formed Scientific Research Associates, a small research and

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