3
Roadmap Gaps and Structure

The steering committee and the panels for this study identified a number of gaps and have made a number of changes to the space technology roadmaps Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). Most of the gaps fall within the scope of a particular roadmap and have been filled by modifying the structure of the TABS (as described below). It is this revised TABS that the steering committee and panels will use when prioritizing the technologies in the roadmaps for the final report.

Some gaps concern multiple roadmaps and cannot be easily filled by adjusting the TABS of a single roadmap. This chapter separately addresses those gaps: commercial space, avionics, and space weather beyond radiation effects. The revised TABS (see Table 3.1 and Appendix C) does not include the changes that would be needed to address these gaps; the purpose of this interim report is to give NASA an early opportunity to initiate the process of revising the draft roadmaps to fill these cross-cutting gaps.

COMMERCIAL SPACE

The content of the draft roadmaps could be improved by giving more consideration to the needs of the commercial space sector. The National Aeronautics and Space Act declares that “the general welfare of the United States requires that the Administration seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.” In addition, NASA is directed to “encourage and provide for federal government use of commercially provided space services and hardware, consistent with the requirements of the federal government” (Pub. L. No. 111-314, sec. 20102). The National Space Policy affirms the importance of commercial space activities, stating that “a robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector”1 (White House, 2010, p. 3). NASA’s contribution to accomplishing these important objectives would be enhanced by a technology development program that does the following:

•   Identifies how the commercial space sector could benefit from advanced technology.

•   Makes appropriate efforts to develop pre-competitive technology relevant to the needs of the commercial space sector, in much the same way that NASA supports pre-competitive technology development in support of the aeronautics industry.

•   Transfers advanced technologies to U.S. industry to help satisfy the needs of the commercial space sector as well as NASA’s own mission needs.

The dissemination of technical data held by NASA can be limited by various factors, including International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and intellectual property rights. Even so, NASA contractors generally have good access to NASA’s technical data. The commercial impact of NASA technology development would be enhanced by more effectively disseminating technology data (past,

_______________________

1 As used in the National Space Policy, the term commercial refers to “space goods, services, or activities provided by private sector enterprises that bear a reasonable portion of the investment risk and responsibility for the activity, operate in accordance with typical market-based incentives for controlling cost and optimizing return on investment, and have the legal capacity to offer these goods or services to existing or potential nongovernmental customers” (White House, 2010, p. 10).



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3 Roadmap Gaps and Structure The steering committee and the panels for this study identified a number of gaps and have made a number of changes to the space technology roadmaps Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). Most of the gaps fall within the scope of a particular roadmap and have been filled by modifying the structure of the TABS (as described below). It is this revised TABS that the steering committee and panels will use when prioritizing the technologies in the roadmaps for the final report. Some gaps concern multiple roadmaps and cannot be easily filled by adjusting the TABS of a single roadmap. This chapter separately addresses those gaps: commercial space, avionics, and space weather beyond radiation effects. The revised TABS (see Table 3.1 and Appendix C) does not include the changes that would be needed to address these gaps; the purpose of this interim report is to give NASA an early opportunity to initiate the process of revising the draft roadmaps to fill these cross-cutting gaps. COMMERCIAL SPACE The content of the draft roadmaps could be improved by giving more consideration to the needs of the commercial space sector. The National Aeronautics and Space Act declares that “the general welfare of the United States requires that the Administration seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.” In addition, NASA is directed to “encourage and provide for federal government use of commercially provided space services and hardware, consistent with the requirements of the federal government” (Pub. L. No. 111-314, sec. 20102). The National Space Policy affirms the importance of commercial space activities, stating that “a robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector”1 (White House, 2010, p. 3). NASA’s contribution to accomplishing these important objectives would be enhanced by a technology development program that does the following: • Identifies how the commercial space sector could benefit from advanced technology. • Makes appropriate efforts to develop pre-competitive technology relevant to the needs of the commercial space sector, in much the same way that NASA supports pre-competitive technology development in support of the aeronautics industry. • Transfers advanced technologies to U.S. industry to help satisfy the needs of the commercial space sector as well as NASA’s own mission needs. The dissemination of technical data held by NASA can be limited by various factors, including International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and intellectual property rights. Even so, NASA contractors generally have good access to NASA’s technical data. The commercial impact of NASA technology development would be enhanced by more effectively disseminating technology data (past, 1 As used in the National Space Policy, the term commercial refers to “space goods, services, or activities provided by private sector enterprises that bear a reasonable portion of the investment risk and responsibility for the activity, operate in accordance with typical market-based incentives for controlling cost and optimizing return on investment, and have the legal capacity to offer these goods or services to existing or potential nongovernmental customers” (White House, 2010, p. 10). 14

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present, and future) to elements of the commercial space industry that are not under contract to NASA. For example, historical data on the performance of thermal protection systems during atmospheric entry and the effects of zero gravity on human health would be of particular interest to companies seeking to establish launch capabilities to transport crew and cargo to low Earth orbit (LEO), in-space servicing, and related space commerce. NASA is supporting ongoing technology development related to autonomous rendezvous and proximity operations, docking and dexterous mechanisms, and life sciences. These technologies currently appear in the draft roadmaps. (See, for example, technology subareas 4.6, Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking, and 6.3, Human Health and Performance.) Highlighting technologies such as these as being of interest to the commercial space sector could facilitate the technology transfer process. In addition, grouping technologies of particular interest to the commercial space sector in a level 2 “Commercial Space Technologies” subarea could be done to enhance the visibility of NASA’s efforts to meet the needs of commercial space. The steering committee gave some consideration to establishing a separate roadmap dealing with commercial space technologies to highlight this area, but decided against it in preference to suggesting a level 2 subarea to show the relevance of a broad range of technologies across many of the roadmaps and to make them easier to identify. AVIONICS Like many other spacecraft systems, avionics are essential to mission success, and they consume scarce resources in terms of launch volume, payload mass, and power. Advanced technology could improve the reliability and performance of avionics in harsh space environments and reduce their volume, mass, and power requirements. However, the draft roadmaps have very few level 3 technologies that would contribute to advances in avionics technology. Some advances in avionics technology will progress even without NASA investment. These likely include commercial development of new data bus technologies, which are broadly applicable, and fundamentally new means of data processing to support a wide range of processor applications. However, it is appropriate for NASA to support the development of avionics technologies that are uniquely driven by NASA mission requirements. These technologies would contribute to the following capabilities: • High computation rates and high data throughput for avionics components that are intrinsically radiation hard. • Fault-tolerant processing. Processor faults can lead to mission failure. Technology advancements in fault tolerant processing would improve future vehicle safety and mission reliability. • Fully coordinated, reliable, and successful operation of complex, highly integrated avionics systems. The complexity of avionics systems for some future space vehicles will press the state of the art. SPACE WEATHER BEYOND RADIATION EFFECTS Space weather refers to the dynamic state of the space environment. It includes space radiation as well as other phenomena, such as solar electromagnetic flux, magnetic fields, charged and neutral components of the solar wind, and energetic particles superimposed on the solar wind from solar and galactic sources. The space environment extends from the Sun throughout the solar system, and it includes the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons. The space environment changes over time scales ranging from seconds to millennia, but the most common time scales of interest to NASA mission operations range from minutes to hours or days. For mission planning and design the relevant time scales range from days to years or decades. Space weather affects NASA operations far beyond the effects of penetrating radiation on human health, as addressed in TA06, Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems (see technology 6.5.4, which has been retitled Radiation Prediction). The technology roadmaps as a whole do not 15

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adequately address the broader impacts of space weather caused by these phenomena. Examples of the impacts, along with representative technological solutions, include: • Spacecraft charging and discharging from plasma effects ― Miniature devices that detect and mitigate plasma discharge • Single event effects (SEEs) in electronics ― Components or systems that are SEE resistant or fault tolerant ― Improved testing systems to qualify components • Thermal and material degradation from exposure to ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen ― Composite and/or multilayer materials that are resistant to erosion • Communications and navigation disruption from x-rays and geomagnetic storms ― Improved sensor systems and models to forecast severe storms • Enhanced orbital drag from atmospheric heating ― Improved long-term solar activity forecasts Advanced technologies are needed to improve space situation awareness, to provide dynamic models of the space environment, and to develop innovative approaches for mitigating the varied effects of space weather and to resolve operational failures and anomalies. These technologies could have broad national impacts, as discussed in a recent NRC report, Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (NRC, 2008). Space weather can disrupt or degrade commercial satellite systems, ground-based ultra-high-frequency communication systems, and Global Positioning System-derived precision navigation and timing, and, in extreme cases, it can lead to widespread power outages as occurred in Montreal, Canada, in 1989. Currently, space weather and the space environment beyond radiation seem to be touched upon in just one of the draft roadmaps: TA08, Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems (see technology 8.3.1, which comprises sensors for particles, fields, and waves, including charged and neutral particles, magnetic fields, and electric fields). A much broader effort would be needed to cover the full scope of space weather effects and to implement an integrated approach to technology development to reduce the varied effects of space weather beyond radiation on NASA missions in Earth orbit and throughout the solar system. A comprehensive program would include space weather monitoring, modeling, prediction, and mitigation for both radiation and other elements of space weather. Such a program could be implemented either by adding relevant level 2 and level 3 technologies to appropriate roadmaps or by implementing a dedicated space weather roadmap. REVISED TECHNOLOGY AREA BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE2 The TABS has three levels, as follows: Level 1: Technology area, for example, TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems; Level 2: Technology subarea, for example, 1.1 Solid Rocket Propulsion Systems; and Level 3: Technology, for example, 1.1.1 Propellants. The draft TABS generated by NASA (revision 10) appears in the left column of Table 3.1, at the end of this chapter. During the course of their deliberations, the steering committee and the panels modified the TABS for some of the technology areas, primarily for the purpose of filling technology gaps within a particular roadmap. The revised TABS forms the basis of the committee’s evaluation and prioritization, which will be reported against that structure in the final report. The TABS for most of the 2 The sections that follow do not address technology areas with TABS that the steering committee and panels did not change: TA01, TA10, TA12, TA13, and TA14. 16

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roadmaps has been revised to make just a few changes or none at all. However, for TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems, the steering committee has made broad changes in the level 3 technologies. All of the changes are explained in the text below, which are listed in the right column of Table 3.1 and in Appendix C. The steering committee and panels made no changes to the level 3 technologies in the roadmaps for TA01, TA10, TA12, TA13, and TA14. However, as noted in Table 3.1, some changes to the TABS for TA10 and TA14 are needed so that the TABS matches the list of level 3 technologies listed in the roadmaps for those areas. Changes to the TABS for TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies The steering committee deleted the following technologies: 2.4.1 Engine Health Monitoring and Safety, 2.4.3 Materials and Manufacturing Technologies, 2.4.4 Heat Rejection, and 2.4.5 Power. None of these technologies fall under the scope of TA02, and roadmap TA02 does not suggest that any of them should be developed as part of TA02. Except for item 2.4.2, this section of the roadmap is used to highlight level 1 or level 2 topics in other roadmaps that are important to the TA02 roadmap but that belong to other roadmaps. For example, with regard to 2.4.5 Power, the roadmap says: Power systems play an integral role in all in-space propulsion systems for both human and robotic missions. The reader is referred to the Technology Area 3, Space Power and Energy Storage Systems. Similarly, with regard to technologies 2.4.1, 2.4.3, and 2.4.4, roadmap TA02 refers readers to roadmaps TA04, TA12, and TA14, respectively, to learn the details of what should be done in these areas. Changes to the TABS for TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Energy storage can be accomplished using many fundamentally different approaches. The current roadmap includes three: batteries, flywheels, and regenerative fuel cells. Two other approaches may also prove feasible for space applications: electric and magnetic field storage and thermal storage (especially for surface power applications). Accordingly, the structure for this roadmap has been modified by adding two new level 3 technologies: • 3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Field Storage • 3.2.5 Thermal Storage Changes to the TABS for TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems In order for the TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems roadmap to describe and provide supporting text for each of the level 3 technologies (like the other roadmaps), it would have to be largely rewritten. In addition, the committee concluded that for this roadmap to be parallel with the other 13 roadmaps it needs to do the following: • Define a clear technology breakdown structure of the TA04 roadmap to level 3 that identifies technologies for development consideration without predetermination of technical solutions. • Provide supporting roadmap text for each of the level 3 technologies that includes an explanation of each technology’s potential application(s), and that motivates its development. • Ensure that each of the included level 3 technologies connect to one or more of the top challenges that are also identified within the applicable roadmap document. 17

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Although Figure 2 in the existing roadmap for TA04 includes a version of a technology breakdown structure to level 3, the document did not meet the criteria above for the following reasons: • The breakdown structure in the existing TA04 roadmap (Figure 2) does not correlate to any of the document’s supporting text below level 2. • The level 3 categories included in the existing TA04 roadmap often identify candidate technical solutions rather than technology development categories. As a result, the steering committee and responsible panel did not have a list of well-defined level 3 technologies to present for public comment, and the list of level 3 technologies in the roadmap was not well suited to prioritization of potential technology developments. Because the TA04 roadmap did not include a viable list of level 3 technologies, public comments for the TA04 roadmap were solicited using the level 2 technology subareas in the existing TA04 roadmap rather than at level 3 as was done for all the other roadmaps. In parallel, a new set of level 3 technologies was developed for each of the level 2 technology subareas. This new set of level 3 technologies is consistent both with the relevant panel’s understanding of applicable TA04 technology needs and with the intent of much of the existing roadmap text. Some new level 3 technologies address important technology gaps within the existing TA04 roadmap: • 4.1.6 Multi-Sensor Data Fusion. Since effective robotics operation often requires the integrated use of data collected simultaneously from a variety of sensors, the fusion of that data into more useful information is a critical capability. The original TA04 TABS included the narrower topic of Sensor Fusion for Grasping (4.5.3), which this technology treats more broadly. • 4.1.7 Mobile Feature Tracking and Discrimination. This area covers the unique challenges to object tracking and discrimination faced by a surface mobility vehicle while in motion. • 4.2.1 Extreme Terrain Mobility. Extreme terrain includes cliffs, crater walls, and very rugged surfaces. Means of mobility to safely reach and loiter at designated locations on such terrain poses unique challenges. • 4.2.2 Below Surface Mobility. Vehicles that would transit under regolith, in caves, or immersed in bodies of liquid have mobility challenges not covered in other level 3 technology entries in this roadmap. • 4.3.3 Modeling of Contact Dynamics. Robotic vehicles that dock or that manipulate objects require detailed models of the contact dynamics to enable proper control of their interactions. • 4.3.4 Mobile Manipulation. Performing any kind of manipulation with a surface vehicle while it is mobile adds complexity to the operation that will require dedicated technology to overcome. • 4.4.4 Intent Recognition and Reaction. More effective robotic aiding of humans will require means for the robots to reliably recognize human intent through speech, gesture, or facial expression to enable appropriate responses. • 4.4.7 Safety, Trust, and Interfacing of Robotic/Human Proximity Operations. Human reliance on proximate robots for critical support capabilities will necessitate a high level of confidence that the robot will respond usefully, safely, and predictably. This capability necessitates means for integrated interaction assessment and associated verification and validation. The original TA04 TABS included the topic of Human Safety (4.7.1), which has been broadened. • 4.5.3 Autonomous Guidance and Control. This capability requires the means to adjoin effective decision making algorithms regarding appropriate and efficient vehicle trajectory, path, and orientation management with suitably robust guidance and control implementations. • 4.5.5 Adjustable Autonomy. There are many levels of autonomy that can be designed into systems. An important capability would provide means to adapt the level of applied autonomy to the 18

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mission circumstances, either automatically or by providing a means for timely human command. The original TA04 TABS included the topic of Semi Automatic Systems (4.5.12), which has been broadened. The other new level 3 technologies reorder, restate, or regroup the entries from the original TABS. If NASA accepts the recommended restructuring of this roadmap, it may be prudent for the NASA roadmapping team to reconvene to revise the roadmap to include these new technologies and to provide descriptions of all of the TA04 level 3 technologies. In any case, the steering committee’s final report will include more detailed information on the TA04 technologies that are determined to be high priority. Changes to the TABS forTA05 Communication and Navigation Technologies 5.4.1 Timekeeping and 5.4.2 Time Distribution have been merged and renamed 5.4.1 Timekeeping and Time Distribution because the technologies are very similar and it would be most effective to develop them together. Technology 5.6.7 Reconfigurable Large Apertures has been renamed Reconfigurable Large Apertures Using Nanosat Constellations to better indicate the content of this technology as described in the TA05 roadmap. Changes to the TABS for TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems Technology 6.5.4 Space Weather Prediction has been renamed Radiation Prediction. As described in the roadmap, this technology is focused on monitoring, modeling, and predicting ionizing radiation (from solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays). This radiation is a subset of Space Weather, which includes many other phenomena. The new name better describes the limited scope of this technology. (Space weather other than radiation is a gap that is discussed above in this chapter.) Changes to the TABS for TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems Several technologies have been renamed, deleted, or moved. In technology subarea 7.1, In Situ Resource Utilization, technology 7.1.3, Consumables Production, has been renamed ISRU Products/Production because ISRU products are expected to consist of more than just consumables. Technology 7.2.1, Logistics Systems, has been renamed Autonomous Logistics Management to more fully include all elements of inventory and stowage control and to encourage development of technologies needed for autonomous capabilities that would ideally begin at the inception of a project and include all supporting vendors and suppliers. In the draft roadmap, Food Production, Processing and Preservation is just one element of technology 7.2.1. Given the importance and complexity of this topic, Food Production, Processing and Preservation has been established as a new level 3 technology (7.2.4). In the draft roadmap, technology 7.4.1, Integrated Habitat Systems, includes several elements, including Smart Habitats. The technologies associated with smart habitats are ubiquitous across all human space vehicles, and so Smart Habitats has been established as a new level 3 technology (7.4.3). 7.5.2, Environmental Protection, has been deleted because all elements of this technology are being treated in other roadmaps (e.g., radiation protection and thermal protection) or they are adequately handled by currently available technologies and design processes (e.g., protection against electromagnetic interference and ultraviolet radiation). 19

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7.5.3, Remote Mission Operations, has been deleted because relevant technologies are more appropriately included in the roadmap for TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology & Processing. 7.5.4, Planetary Safety, has been deleted. The content of this technology, as described in the draft roadmap, focuses on planetary protection involving robotic missions (that is, ensuring that robotic missions do not contaminate planetary destinations with biological agents from Earth, and ensuring that robotic sample return missions do not contaminate Earth with alien biological agents). Likewise, planetary protection policies are limited to robotic missions. Until those policies are updated to provide guidance on human exploration, which will require changes to international agreements coordinated through the United Nations, it would be premature to invest in new technology relevant to planetary safety in TA07 because the focus of this roadmap is human exploration. 7.5.5, Integrated Flight Operations Systems, has been added to support the development of capabilities to provide real-time support for spaceflight operations between a crewed vehicle and a mission control center with reduced ground-based staffing coupled with communications latency and/or extended loss of signal periods. The focus of this technology would be operational data management and related technologies to improve integrated vehicle-ground decision making to ensure mission success and safety of flight for missions beyond LEO. This technology represents an intersection between flight software development; Earth-based command and control‚ models‚ and crew training; and simulation‚ as applied to crewed vehicles and ground control systems. 7.5.6, Integrated Risk Assessment Tools, has been added to support development of new software tools for assessing integrated safety risks for varying exploration scenarios. These tools would improve the ability to assess the risk of various exploration and vehicle development strategies (for example, in terms of destinations, habitat deployment strategies, and the role of ISRU). 7.6.1, Modeling, Simulations and Destination Characterization, has been deleted because relevant technologies are more appropriately included in the roadmap for TA11, Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology and Processing. Changes to the TABS for TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Several technologies have been added or revised, as detailed below. 8.1.3 Optical Components was merged with 8.2.1. Mirror Systems and renamed 8.1.3 Optical Systems because the technologies are very similar and it would be most effective to develop these technologies together. 8.1.7 Space Atomic Interferometry has been added to fill a gap in the roadmap. Atomic interference of laser-cooled atoms has enabled fundamental physics laboratory experiments (at TRL 4), including gravitational measurements with greatly improved precision. Advances in this technology could lead to extremely sensitive space detectors for acceleration and, thus, gravity waves. 8.2.4 High Contrast Imaging and Spectroscopy Technologies has been added to fill a gap. Development of advanced approaches to high-dynamic-range imaging would be a game-changing technology that is essential to support exoplanet imaging, which is a priority initiative in the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics (NRC, 2010). This technology would provide unprecedented sensitivity, field of view, and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, with many subsidiary applications such as solar physics and the study of faint structures around bright objects (such as jets, halos, and winds). 8.2.5 Wireless Spacecraft Technologies has been added to fill a gap in the roadmap. The use of wireless systems in spacecraft avionics and instrumentation will usher in a new and game-changing methodology in the way spacecraft and space missions will be designed and implemented. Wireless avionics could provide numerous improvements over hard-wired architectures, such as inherent cross- strapping, an architecture that is extensible and reliable; reduction in cable mass; and a significant reduction in the cost and time of system integration and test. 20

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Two technologies in the roadmaps (8.3.1 Particles: Charged and Neutral and 8.3.2 Fields and Waves) seem to have so much overlap that they have been combined to form one entry. The title of the new technology is 8.3.1 Particles, Fields, and Waves: Charged and Neutral Particles, Magnetic and Electric Fields. Changes to the TABS for TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems Technology 9.1.5 Instrumentation and Health Monitoring is applicable to descent and landing as well as entry, and so it has been moved to technology subarea 9.4, Vehicle Systems Technology, which encompasses technologies that cover multiple phases of EDL. It has been redesignated 9.4.6. Modeling and Simulation appears as separate line items in Entry (9.1.6), Descent (9.2.5), and Landing (9.3.6). However, there is so much overlap among these three areas, and the factors that determine priority vary so little from one to another, that they have been combined into a new level three technology (9.4.5 EDL Modeling and Simulation) in technology subarea 9.4, Vehicle Systems Technology. GN&C sensors (9.2.4) are applicable to entry and landing as well as descent. In addition, there are entry and descent aspects to large-body GN&C (9.3.4). Therefore, these items have been combined into a new level 3 technology (9.4.7 GN&C Sensors and Systems ) in technology subarea 9.4, Vehicle Systems Technology. 9.4.1 Architecture Analyses appears in the TABS and in two summary figures in the TA09 roadmap, but it does not appear in the roadmap table of contents or in the text in the main body of the roadmap. It has been deleted. 9.4.3 in the TABS is titled Systems Integration and Analyses. In some places in the roadmap it is titled Vehicle Technology. Systems Integration and Analyses more accurately describes the content of this technology. Changes to the TABS for TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, and Processing Technology 11.2.4, Science and Engineering Modeling (which is actually titled Science and Aerospace Engineering Modeling in the text of the TA11 roadmap), was considered to be too broad. It has been split in two: • 11.2.4a Science Modeling and Simulation and • 11.2.4b Aerospace Engineering Modeling and Simulation. The content of these two technologies is as described in the TA11 roadmap under section 11.2.4 Science and Aerospace Engineering Modeling, in the subsections titled Science Modeling and Aerospace Engineering, respectively. 21

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TABLE 3.1 Roadmap Technology Area Breakdown Structure, NASA Draft (left column) and Steering Committee Changes (right column). Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes TA01 Launch Propulsion Systems The structure of this roadmap remains unchanged. 1.1 Solid Rocket Propulsion Systems 1.1.1 Propellants 1.1.2 Case Materials 1.1.3 Nozzle Systems 1.1.4 Hybrid Rocket Propulsion Systems 1.1.5 Fundamental Solid Propulsion Technologies 1.2 Liquid Rocket Propulsion Systems 1.2.1 LH2/LOX Based 1.2.2 RP/LOX Based 1.2.3 CH4/LOX Based 1.2.4 Detonation Wave Engines (Closed Cycle) 1.2.5 Propellants 1.2.6 Fundamental Liquid Propulsion Technologies 1.3 Air Breathing Propulsion Systems 1.3.1 TBCC 1.3.2 RBCC 1.3.3 Detonation Wave Engines (Open Cycle) 1.3.4 Turbine Based Jet Engines (Flyback Boosters) 1.3.5 Ramjet/Scramjet Engines (Accelerators) 1.3.6 Deeply-cooled Air Cycles 1.3.7 Air Collection and Enrichment System 1.3.8 Fundamental Air Breathing Propulsion Technologies 1.4 Ancillary Propulsion Systems 1.4.1 Auxiliary Control Systems 1.4.2 Main Propulsion Systems (Excluding Engines) 1.4.3 Launch Abort Systems 1.4.4 Thrust Vector Control Systems 1.4.5 Health Management and Sensors 1.4.6 Pyro and Separation Systems 1.4.7 Fundamental Ancillary Propulsion Technologies 1.5 Unconventional / Other Propulsion Systems 1.5.1 Ground Launch Assist 1.5.2 Air Launch / Drop Systems 1.5.3 Space Tether Assist 1.5.4 Beamed Energy / Energy Addition 1.5.5 Nuclear 1.5.6 High Energy Density Materials/Propellants TA02 In-Space Propulsion Technologies Four technologies have been deleted. 2.1 Chemical Propulsion 2.1.1 Liquid Storable 2.1.2 Liquid Cryogenic 22

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 2.1.3 Gels 2.1.4 Solid 2.1.5 Hybrid 2.1.6 Cold Gas/Warm Gas 2.1.7 Micro-propulsion 2.2 Non-Chemical Propulsion 2.2.1 Electric Propulsion 2.2.2 Solar Sail Propulsion 2.2.3 Thermal Propulsion 2.2.4 Tether Propulsion 2.3 Advanced (TRL <3) Propulsion Technologies 2.3.1 Beamed Energy Propulsion 2.3.2 Electric Sail Propulsion 2.3.3 Fusion Propulsion 2.3.4 High Energy Density Materials 2.3.5 Antimatter Propulsion 2.3.6 Advanced Fission 2.3.7 Breakthrough Propulsion 2.4 Supporting Technologies 2.4.1 Engine Health Monitoring and Safety Delete: 2.4.1 Engine Health Monitoring and Safety 2.4.2 Propellant Storage and Transfer 2.4.3 Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Delete: 2.4.3 Materials and Manufacturing Technologies 2.4.4 Heat Rejection Delete: 2.4.4 Heat Rejection 2.4.5 Power Delete: 2.4.5 Power TA03 Space Power and Energy Storage Two technologies have been added. 3.1 Power Generation 3.1.1 Energy Harvesting 3.1.2 Chemical (Fuel Cells, Heat Engines) 3.1.3 Solar (Photo-Voltaic and Thermal) 3.1.4 Radioisotope 3.1.5 Fission 3.1.6 Fusion 3.2 Energy Storage 3.2.1 Batteries 3.2.2 Flywheels 3.2.3 Regenerative Fuel Cells Add: 3.2.4 Electric and Magnetic Field Storage Add: 3.2.5 Thermal Storage 3.3 Power Management and Distribution 3.3.1 Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) 3.3.2 Management and Control 3.3.3 Distribution and Transmission 3.3.4 Wireless Power Transmission 3.3.5 [Power] Conversion and Regulation 3.4 Cross-Cutting Technology 3.4.1 Analytical Tools 3.4.2 Green Energy Impact 3.4.3 Multi-functional Structures 3.4.4 Alternative Fuels 23

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous The technologies have been largely rewritten. (RTA) Systems 4.1 Sensing and Perception 4.1 Sensing and Perception 4.1.1 Stereo Vision 4.1.1 Vision 4.1.2 LIDAR 4.1.2 Tactile Sensing 4.1.3 Proximity Sensing 4.1.3 Natural Feature Image Recognition 4.1.4 Sensing Non-Geometric Terrain Properties 4.1.4 Localization and Mapping 4.1.5 Estimating Terrain Mechanical Properties 4.1.5 Pose Estimation 4.1.6 Tactile Sensing Arrays 4.1.6 Multi-Sensor Data Fusion 4.1.7 Gravity Sensors and Celestial Nav. 4.1.7 Mobile Feature Tracking and Discrimination 4.1.8 Terrain Relative Navigation 4.1.8 Terrain Classification and Characterization 4.1.9 Real-time Self-calibrating of Hand-eye Systems 4.2 Mobility 4.2 Mobility 4.2.1 Simultaneous Localiz. and Mapping 4.2.1 Extreme Terrain Mobility 4.2.2 Hazard Detection Algorithms 4.2.2 Below-Surface Mobility 4.2.3 Active Illumination 4.2.3 Above-Surface Mobility 4.2.4 3-D Path Planning w/ Uncertainty 4.2.4 Small Body/Microgravity Mobility 4.2.5 Long-life Extr. Enviro. Mechanisms 4.2.6 Robotic Jet Backpacks 4.2.7 Smart Tethers 4.2.8 Robot Swarms 4.2.9 Walking in Micro-g 4.3 Manipulation 4.3 Manipulation 4.3.1 Motion Planning Alg., High DOF 4.3.1 Robot Arms 4.3.2 Sensing and Control 4.3.2 Dexterous Manipulators 4.3.3 Robot Arms (light, high strength) 4.3.3 Modeling of Contact Dynamics 4.3.4 Dexterous Manipul., Robot Hands 4.3.4 Mobile Manipulation 4.3.5 Sensor Fusion for Grasping 4.3.5 Collaborative Manipulation 4.3.6 Grasp Planning Algorithms Robotic 4.3.6 Robotic Drilling and Sample Processing Drilling Mechanisms 4.3.7 Multi-arm / Finger Manipulation 4.3.8 Planning with Uncertainty 4.4 Human-Systems Integration 4.4 Human-Systems Integration 4.4.1 Crew Decision Support Systems 4.4.1 Multi-Modal Human-Systems Interaction 4.4.2 Immersive Visualization 4.4.2 Supervisory Control 4.4.3 Distributed Collaboration 4.4.3 Robot-to-Suit Interfaces 4.4.4 Multi Agent Coordination 4.4.4 Intent Recognition and Reaction 4.4.5 Haptic Displays 4.4.5 Distributed Collaboration 4.4.6 Displaying Range Data to Humans 4.4.6 Common Human-Systems Interfaces 4.4.7 Safety, Trust, and Interfacing of Robotic/Human Proximity Operations 4.5 Autonomy 4.5 Autonomy 4.5.1 Spacecraft Control Systems 4.5.1 Vehicle System Management and FDIR 4.5.2 Vehicle Health, Prog/Diag Systems 4.5.2 Dynamic Planning and Sequencing Tools 4.5.3 Human Life Support Systems 4.5.3 Autonomous Guidance and Control 4.5.4 Planning/Scheduling Resources 4.5.4 Multi-Agent Coordination 4.5.5 Operations 4.5.5 Adjustable Autonomy 4.5.6 Integrated Systems Health Management 4.5.6 Terrain Relative Navigation 4.5.7 FDIR and Diagnosis 4.5.7 Path and Motion Planning with 4.5.8 System Monitoring and Prognosis Uncertainty 4.5.9 V&V of Complex Adaptive Systems 24

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 4.5.10 Automated Software Generation 4.5.11 Software Reliability 4.5.12 Semi Automatic Systems 4.6 Auton. Rendezvous and Docking 4.6 Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking 4.6.1 Rendezvous and Capture 4.6.1 Relative Navigation Sensors (long, mid, 4.6.2 Low impact and Androgenous Docking and near range) Systems and Interfaces 4.6.2 Relative Guidance Algorithms 4.6.3 Relative Navigation Sensors 4.6.3 Docking and Capture 4.6.4 Robust AR&D GN&C Algorithms and Mechanisms/Interfaces FSW 4.6.5 Onboard Mission Manager 4.6.6 AR&D Integration and Standardization 4.7 RTA Systems Engineering 4.7 RTA Systems Engineering 4.7.1 Human safety 4.7.1 Modularity / Commonality 4.7.2 Refueling Interfaces and Assoc. Tools 4.7.2 Verification and Validation of Complex 4.7.3 Modular / Serviceable Interfaces Adaptive Systems 4.7.4 High Perf., Low Power Onboard 4.7.3 Onboard Computing Computers 4.7.5 Environment Tolerance 4.7.6 Thermal Control 4.7.7 Robot-to-Suit Interfaces 4.7.8 Common Human-Robot Interfaces 4.7.9 Crew Self Sufficiency TA05 Communication and Navigation Two technologies have been merged and one has been renamed. 5.1 Optical Comm. and Navigation 5.1.1 Detector Development 5.1.2 Large Apertures 5.1.3 Lasers 5.1.4 Acquisition and Tracking 5.1.5 Atmospheric Mitigation 5.2 Radio Frequency Communications 5.2.1 Spectrum Efficient Technologies 5.2.2 Power Efficient Technologies 5.2.3 Propagation 5.2.4 Flight and Ground Systems 5.2.5 Earth Launch and Reentry Comm. 5.2.6 Antennas 5.3 Internetworking 5.3.1 Disruptive Tolerant Networking 5.3.2 Adaptive Network Topology 5.3.3 Information Assurance 5.3.4 Integrated Network Management 5.4 Position, Navigation, and Timing 5.4.1 Timekeeping Merge 5.4.1 and 5.4.2: 5.4.2 Time Distribution Rename: 5.4.1 Timekeeping and Time Distribution 5.4.3 Onboard Auto Navigation and Maneuver Delete: 5.4.2 Time Distribution 5.4.4 Sensors and Vision Processing Systems 5.4.5 Relative and Proximity Navigation 5.4.6 Auto Precision Formation Flying 5.4.7 Auto Approach and Landing 5.5 Integrated Technologies 5.5.1 Radio Systems 25

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 5.5.2 Ultra Wideband 5.5.3 Cognitive Networks 5.5.4 Science from the Comm. System 5.5.5 Hybrid Optical Comm. and Nav. Sensors 5.5.6 RF/Optical Hybrid Technology 5.6 Revolutionary Concepts 5.6.1 X-Ray Navigation 5.6.2 X-Ray Communications 5.6.3 Neutrino-Based Navigation and Tracking 5.6.4 Quantum Key Distribution 5.6.5 Quantum Communications 5.6.6 SQIF Microwave Amplifier 5.6.7 Reconfigurable Large Apertures Rename: 5.6.7 Reconfigurable Large Apertures Using Nanosat Constellations TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and One technology has been renamed. Habitation Systems 6.1 Environmental Control, Life Support Systems, and Habitation Systems 6.1.1 Air Revitalization 6.1.2 Water Recovery and Management 6.1.3 Waste Management 6.1.4 Habitation 6.2 Extravehicular Activity Systems 6.2.1 Pressure Garment 6.2.2 Portable Life Support System 6.2.3 Power, Avionics and Software 6.3 Human Health and Performance 6.3.1 Medical Diagnosis / Prognosis 6.3.2 Long-Duration Health 6.3.3 Behavioral Health and Performance 6.3.4 Human Factors and Performance 6.4 Environmental Monitoring, Safety, and Emergency Response 6.4.1 Sensors: Air, Water, Microbial, etc. 6.4.2 Fire: Detection, Suppression 6.4.3 Protective Clothing / Breathing 6.4.4 Remediation 6.5 Radiation 6.5.1 Risk Assessment Modeling 6.5.2 Radiation Mitigation 6.5.3 Protection Systems 6.5.4 Space Weather Prediction Rename: 6.5.4 Radiation Prediction 6.5.5 Monitoring Technology TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems Several technologies have been renamed, deleted, or added. 7.1 In Situ Resource Utilization 7.1.1 Destination Reconnaissance, Prospecting, and Mapping 7.1.2 Resource Acquisition 7.1.3 Consumables Production Rename: 7.1.3 ISRU Products/Production 7.1.4 Manufacturing and Infrastructure 26

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes Emplacement 7.2 Sustainability and Supportability 7.2.1 Logistics Systems Rename: 7.2.1 Autonomous Logistics Management 7.2.2 Maintenance Systems 7.2.3 Repair Systems Add: 7.2.4 Food Production, Processing and Preservation (formerly a level 4 item under 7.2.1) 7.3 Advanced Human Mobility Systems 7.3.1 EVA Mobility 7.3.2 Surface Mobility 7.3.3 Off-Surface Mobility 7.4 Advanced Habitat Systems 7.4.1 Integrated Habitat Systems 7.4.2 Habitat Evolution Add: 7.4.3 Smart Habitats (formerly a level 4 item under 7.4.1) 7.5 Mission Operations and Safety 7.5.1 Crew Training 7.5.2 Environmental Protection Delete: 7.5.2 Environmental Protection 7.5.3 Remote Mission Operations Delete: 7.5.3 Remote Mission Operations 7.5.4 Planetary Safety Delete: 7.5.4 Planetary Safety Add: 7.5.5 Integrated Flight Operations Systems Add: 7.5.6 Integrated Risk Assessment Tools 7.6 Cross-Cutting Systems 7.6.1 Modeling, Simulations, and Destination Delete: 7.6.1 Modeling, Simulations, and Destination Characterization Characterization 7.6.2 Construction and Assembly 7.6.3 Dust Prevention and Mitigation TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Several technologies have been added or merged. Sensor Systems 8.1 Remote Sensing Instruments / Sensors 8.1.1 Detectors and Focal Planes 8.1.2 Electronics 8.1.3 Optical Components Rename: 8.1.3 Optical Systems (now includes substance of 8.2.1) 8.1.4 Microwave / Radio 8.1.5 Lasers 8.1.6 Cryogenic / Thermal Add: 8.1.7 Space Atomic Interferometry 8.2 Observatories 8.2.1 Mirror Systems Delete: 8.2.1 Mirror Systems (merged into 8.1.3) 8.2.2 Structures and Antennas 8.2.3 Distributed Aperture Add: 8.2.4 High Contrast Imaging and Spectroscopy Technologies Add: 8.2.5 Wireless Spacecraft Technologies 8.3 In Situ Instruments / Sensor 8.3.1 Particles: Charged and Neutral Merge 8.3.2 into a renamed 8.3.1, Particles, Fields, and Waves: Charged and Neutral Particles, Magnetic and Electric Fields 8.3.2 Fields and Waves Delete 8.3.2 Fields and Waves (merged into 8.3.1) 27

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 8.3.3 In Situ Add: 8.3.4 Surface Biology and Chemistry Sensors: Sensors to Detect and Analyze Biotic and Prebiotic Substances TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems Several items have been merged and/or relocated or deleted. 9.1 Aeroassist and Atmospheric Entry 9.1.1 Rigid Thermal Protection Systems 9.1.2 Flexible Thermal Protection Systems 9.1.3 Rigid Hypersonic Decelerators 9.1.4 Deployable Hypersonic Decelerators 9.1.5 Instrumentation and Health Monitoring Move: 9.1.5 into added 9.4.6 Instrumentation and Health 9.1.6 Entry Modeling and Simulation Monitoring 9.2 Descent Merge 9.1.6 with 9.2.5 and 9.3.6 and move to added 9.2.1 Attached Deployable Decelerators 9.4.5 EDL Modeling and Simulation 9.2.2 Trailing Deployable Decelerators 9.2.3 Supersonic Retropropulsion 9.2.4 GN&C Sensors Merge 9.2.4 with 9.3.4 and move to added 9.4.7 GN&C 9.2.5 Descent Modeling and Simulation Sensors and Systems 9.3 Landing Merge 9.2.5 with 9.1.6 and 9.3.6 and move to added 9.3.1 Touchdown Systems 9.4.5, EDL Modeling and Simulation 9.3.2 Egress and Deployment Systems 9.3.3 Propulsion Systems 9.3.4 Large Body GN&C Merge 9.3.4 with 9.2.4 and move to added 9.4.7, GN&C 9.3.5 Small Body Systems Sensors and Systems 9.3.6 Landing Modeling and Simulation Merge 9.3.6 with 9.1.6 and 9.2.5 and move to added 9.4 Vehicle Systems Technology 9.4.5, EDL Modeling and Simulation 9.4.1 Architecture Analyses Delete: 9.4.1 Architecture Analyses 9.4.2 Separation Systems 9.4.3 System Integration and Analyses Note: In some places in the roadmap, 9.4.3 “Systems Integration and Analyses” is titled “Vehicle Technology.” Systems Integration and Analyses more accurately describes the content of this technology. 9.4.4 Atmosphere and Surface Characterization Add: 9.4.5 EDL Modeling and Simulation Add: 9.4.6 Instrumentation and Health Monitoring Add: 9.4.7 GN&C Sensors and Systems TA10 Nanotechnology The steering committee made no changes to the structure of this roadmap, although NASA’s draft roadmap renamed or moved seven technologies in the TABS. 10.1 Engineered Materials and Structures 10.1.1 Lightweight Structures Rename: 10.1.1 Lightweight Materials and Structures 10.1.2 Damage Tolerant Systems 10.1.3 Coatings 10.1.4 Adhesives 10.1.5 Thermal Protection and Control 10.2 Energy Generation and Storage 10.2.1 Energy Storage Move 10.2.1 to 10.2.2 Energy Storage 10.2.2 Energy Generation Move 10.2.2 to 10.2.1 Energy Generation 10.2.3 Energy Distribution 10.3 Propulsion 28

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 10.3.1 Propellants Rename: 10.3.1 Nanopropellants 10.3.2 Propulsion Components Rename: 10.3.2 Propulsion Systems 10.3.3 In-Space Propulsion 10.4 Sensors, Electronics and Devices 10.4.1 Sensors and Actuators 10.4.2 Nanoelectronics Rename: 10.4.2 Electronics 10.4.3 Miniature Instruments Rename: 10.4.3 Miniature Instrumentation TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, One technology has been split into two parts. and Processing 11.1 Computing 11.1.1 Flight Computing 11.1.2 Ground Computing 11.2 Modeling 11.2.1 Software Modeling and Model-Checking 11.2.2 Integrated Hardware and Software Modeling 11.2.3 Human-System Performance Modeling 11.2.4 Science and Engineering Modeling Split 11.2.4 to create two separate technologies: 11.2.4a Science Modeling and Simulation 11.2.4b Aerospace Engineering Modeling and Simulation 11.2.5 Frameworks, Languages, Tools, and Standards 11.3 Simulation 11.3.1 Distributed Simulation 11.3.2 Integrated System Lifecycle Simulation 11.3.3 Simulation-Based Systems Engineering 11.3.4 Simulation-Based Training and Decision Support Systems 11.4 Information Processing 11.4.1 Science, Engineering, and Mission Data Lifecycle 11.4.2 Intelligent Data Understanding 11.4.3 Semantic Technologies 11.4.4 Collaborative Science and Engineering 11.4.5 Advanced Mission Systems TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems The structure of this roadmap remains unchanged. & Manufacturing 12.1 Materials 12.1.1 Lightweight Structure 12.1.2 Computational Design 12.1.3 Flexible Material Systems 12.1.4 Environment 12.1.5 Special Materials 12.2 Structures 12.2.1 Lightweight Concepts 12.2.2 Design and Certification Methods 12.2.3 Reliability and Sustainment 12.2.4 Test Tools and Methods 12.2.5 Innovative, Multifunctional Concepts 12.3 Mechanical Systems 29

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 12.3.1 Deployables, Docking and Interfaces 12.3.2 Mechanism Life Extension Systems 12.3.3 Electro-mechanical, Mechanical, and Micromechanisms 12.3.4 Design and Analysis Tools and Methods 12.3.5 Reliability / Life Assessment / Health Monitoring 12.3.6 Certification Methods 12.4 Manufacturing 12.4.1 Manufacturing Processes 12.4.2 Intelligent Integrated Manufacturing and Cyber Physical Systems 12.4.3 Electronics and Optics Manufacturing Process 12.4.4 Sustainable Manufacturing 12.5 Cross-Cutting 12.5.1 Nondestructive Evaluation and Sensors 12.5.2 Model-Based Certification and Sustainment Methods 12.5.3 Loads and Environments TA13 Ground and Launch Systems Processing The structure of this roadmap remains unchanged. 13.1 Technologies to Optimize the Operational Life- Cycle 13.1.1 Storage, Distribution, and Conservation of Fluids 13.1.2 Automated Alignment, Coupling, and Assembly Systems 13.1.3 Autonomous Command and Control for Ground and Integrated Vehicle/Ground Systems 13.2 Environmental and Green Technologies 13.2.1 Corrosion Prevention, Detection, and Mitigation 13.2.2 Environmental Remediation and Site Restoration 13.2.3 Preservation of Natural Ecosystems 13.2.4 Alternate Energy Prototypes 13.3 Technologies to Increase Reliability and Mission Availability 13.3.1 Advanced Launch Technologies 13.3.2 Environment-Hardened Materials and Structures 13.3.3 Inspection, Anomaly Detection, and Identification 13.3.4 Fault Isolation and Diagnostics 13.3.5 Prognostics Technologies 13.3.6 Repair, Mitigation, and Recovery Technologies 13.3.7 Communications, Networking, Timing, and Telemetry 13.4 Technologies to Improve Mission Safety/Mission Risk 30

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Draft TABS by NASA, Revision 10 Changes 13.4.1 Range Tracking, Surveillance, and Flight Safety Technologies 13.4.2 Landing and Recovery Systems and Components 13.4.3 Weather Prediction and Mitigation 13.4.4 Robotics / Telerobotics 13.4.5 Safety Systems TA14 Thermal Management Systems The steering committee made no changes to the structure of this roadmap, although NASA’s draft roadmap had a 14.1 Cryogenic Systems different name for two technologies. 14.1.1 Passive Thermal Control 14.1.2 Active Thermal Control 14.1.3 Integration and Modeling Rename: 14.1.3 Systems Integration 14.2 Thermal Control Systems 14.2.1 Heat Acquisition 14.2.2 Heat Transfer 14.2.3 Heat Rejection and Energy Storage 14.3 Thermal Protection Systems 14.3.1 Entry / Ascent TPS Rename: 14.3.1 Ascent / Entry TPS 14.3.2 Plume Shielding (Convective and Radiative) 14.3.3 Sensor Systems and Measurement Technologies NOTE: The Technology Area Breakdown Structure as revised by the steering committee and panels is shown in Appendix C. Changes are explained in the report text in Chapter 3. REFERENCES National Research Council (NRC). 2008. Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts, A Workshop Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12507.html. NRC. 2010. New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12951.html. White House. 2010. National Space Policy of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: White House. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_space_policy_6-28- 10.pdf. 31