Consultation: “The dynamic process of dialogue between individuals or groups, based upon a genuine exchange of views, and normally with the objective of influencing decisions, policies, or programs of action.”4
Cost-benefit analysis: A method of considering the advantages and disadvantages of alternative policies or programs by converting all outcomes into monetary values.5
Cost-effectiveness analysis: An analysis that compares two or more policies or programs on at least two attributes, for example, costs and benefits. The analysis is done at the margin—that is, to determine the incremental cost effectiveness of one policy or program compared with another, the analyst determines the additional cost required to achieve an additional unit of benefit.6
Council on Environmental Quality: An agency in the Executive Office of the President that “coordinates federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. CEQ was established…by Congress as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and additional responsibilities were provided by the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970.”7
Determinants of health: Many factors contribute to the health of individuals or communities. “Whether people are healthy or not, is determined by their circumstances and environment. To a large extent, factors such as where we live, the state of our environment, genetics, our income and education level, and our relationships with friends and family all have considerable impacts on health, whereas the more commonly considered factors such as access and use of health care services often have less of an impact. The determinants of health include:
4RTPI (Royal Town Planning Institute). 2005. Guidelines on Effective Community Involvement and Consultation. Royal Town Planning Institute [online]. Available: http://www.rtpi.org.uk/download/385/Guidlelines-on-effective-communityinvolvement.pdf [accessed June 8, 2011].
5Bergus, G.R., S.B. Cantor, M.H. Ebell, T.G. Ganiats, P.P. Glasziou, M.D. Hagen, R.M. Hamm, F.H. Lawler, and J.F. Murray. 1995. A glossary of medical decision-making terms. Prim. Care 22(2):385-393.
6Bergus, G.R., S.B. Cantor, M.H. Ebell, T.G. Ganiats, P.P. Glasziou, M.D. Hagen, R.M. Hamm, F.H. Lawler, and J.F. Murray. 1995. A glossary of medical decision-making terms. Prim. Care 22(2):385-393.
7CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality). 2010. The Council on Environmental Quality – About. Council on Environmental Quality [online]. Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/about [accessed Nov. 22, 2010].