Appendix E

Summary of Health Impact Assessment Guides

Tables E-1 and E-2 provide a summary of health impact assessment (HIA) guides for each stage of the HIA process. Specifically, Table E-1 examines how HIA guides conceptualize the stages of an HIA. It does not review emerging approaches—such as practice standards (Bhatia et al. 2009, 2010)—or review criteria (Fredsgaard et al. 2009). Table E-2 provides an overview of HIA guides for policies and plans.



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Appendix E Summary of Health Impact Assessment Guides Tables E-1 and E-2 provide a summary of health impact assessment (HIA) guides for each stage of the HIA process. Specifically, Table E-1 examines how HIA guides conceptualize the stages of an HIA. It does not review emerging approaches—such as practice standards (Bhatia et al. 2009, 2010)—or review criteria (Fredsgaard et al. 2009). Table E-2 provides an overview of HIA guides for policies and plans. 196

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TABLE E-1 A Review of Health Impact Assessment Guidesa Monitoring and Screening Scoping Assessment Reporting Recommendations Evaluation Development —— ——  Screening  Scoping  Reviewing HIA  Monitoring Lending report community health  Stakeholder (Pfeiffer and performance of engagement  Reviewing Dora, unpublished project community material, 2010)b health action plan ICMM ——  Screening  Scoping  Analysis of  HIA reporting  Developing health (International health impacts management plan  Community Council on and follow up profiling  Development of Mining and (monitoring and baseline mitigation and Metal 2010) and evaluation) studies enhancement measures  Stakeholder and community involvement  Health impact evidence gathering IFC ——  Screening  Scoping  Risk assessment  Health action plan  Implementation (International and monitoring Finance  Evaluation and Corporation verification of 2009) performance and effectiveness UCLA (Fielding —— ——  Screening  Scoping  Assessment  Reporting and and Cole 2008) monitoring  Profiling (Continued) 197

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TABLE E-1 Continued 198 Monitoring and Screening Scoping Assessment Reporting Recommendations Evaluation MWIA  Screening  Scoping  Appraisal process  Identification  Identification of  Identification of (Coggins et al. of potential recommendations indicators for  Evidence  Community 2008) beneficial and writing of report monitoring impacts based profiling or adverse of proposal on assessment  Stakeholder and impacts mental well-being key informant and implementation  Research such as of recommendations literature search CHETRE ——  Screening  Scoping  Assessment  Decision-making and  Evaluation and (Harris et al. 2007) recommendations follow-up  Identification Greenspace  Screening  Scoping  Identification and ——  Make  Monitor impacts (Greenspace assessment of recommendations  Set up a team  Local profile Scotland 2008) impacts to do HIA  Involve stakeholders IAIA  Screening  Scoping  Full-scale HIA  Appraisal of  Establishment of  Monitoring of (Quigley et al. HIA report framework for compliance  Public 2006) intersectoral action engagement and dialogue  Negotiation of resource allocations for health safeguard measures IPIECA  Screening  Scoping  Risk assessment;  Decision-making; ——  Implementation (IPIECA/OGP impact establishing and monitoring 2005) assessment priorities;  Evaluation reporting

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EFHIA ——  Screening  Scoping  Assessment  Recommendations  Evaluation and (Mahoney et al. of impacts monitoring  Impact 2004) identification Merseyside ——  Screening  Conduct  Appraise  Negotiate  Implement and (Scott-Samuel assessmentc assessment favored monitor  Establish et al. 2001) options  Evaluate and steering group document  Agree on terms of reference for assessment  Select assessor EHIA ——  Project  Population  Prognosis of  Recommendations  Evaluation (Fehr 1999) analysis analysis future pollution  Communication  Regional  Background  Summary analysis situation assessment of impacts a This table examines how HIA guides conceptualize the stages of an HIA. It does not review emerging approaches, such as practice standards (Bhatia et al. 2009, 2010), or review criteria (Fredsgaard et al. 2009). b This is not strictly a guide, and there is no assessment stage. The document assists lenders in following and reviewing health assessments. c This stage includes seven steps and covers scoping and assessment. Abbreviations: CHETRE, Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation; EFHIA, equity-focused health impact assessment; EHIA, envi- ronmental health impact assessment; IAIA, International Association for Impact Assessment; ICMM, International Council on Mining and Metals; IFC, International Finance Corporation; IPIECA, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association; MWIA, mental well-being impact assessment; and UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles. 199

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TABLE E-2 Health Impact Assessment Guides for Policies or Plans 200 SEA EPHIA (EP/Council 2001; ODPM 2005) (Abrahams et al. 2004) Screening—2.5 under Article 2(a), the plans and programs subject to the directive are those which are: Subject to preparation or adoption by an authority at national,  Screening Screening regional, or local level or prepared by an authority for adoption through a legislative procedure by Parliament or government. Required by legislative, regulatory, or administrative provisions.  Stage A—Setting the context and objectives, establishing the baseline, deciding on scope A1: Identifying relevant plans, programs, and environmental protection objectives. Scoping Scoping A2: Collecting baseline data. A3: Identifying environmental problems. A4: Developing SEA objectives, indicators, and targets. A5: Consulting on the scope of SEA. Stage B—Alternatives and assessment  Conduct assessment B1: Testing the plan or program objectives against the SEA objectives.  Policy analysis B2: Developing strategic alternatives.  Qualitative and quantitative data collection B3: Predicting the effects of the draft plan or program, Assessment  Impact analysis including alternatives.  Setting priorities among impacts B4: Evaluating the effects of the draft plan or program,  Recommendations developed including alternatives.  Profiling B5: Considering ways to mitigate adverse effects.

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B6: Proposing measures to monitor the environmental effects of  Process evaluation plan or program implementation. Reporting Stage C—Preparing the environmental report Report on health impacts and policy options Stage D—Consultation and decision-making Responsible authorities will Recommendations  Consult on the draft plan or programme and the environmental report.  Assess significant changes. Stage E—Monitoring implementation of the plan or program  Monitoring Monitoring and evaluation  Impact and outcome evaluation  Developing aims of and methods for monitoring. Abbreviations: EPHIA, European policy health impact assessment; and SEA, strategic environmental assessment. 201

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202 Improving Health in the U.S.: The Role of Health Impact Assessment REFERENCES Abrahams, D., A. Pennington, A. Scott-Samuel, C. Doyle, O. Metcalfe, L. den Broeder, F. Haigh, O. Mekel, and R. Fehr. 2004. European Policy Health Impact Assess- ment: A Guide, University of Liverpool, England; RIVM, Netherlands; Institute of Public Health, Ireland; loegd, Institute of Public Health, NRW Bielefeld, Ger- many. Prepared for the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission. May 2004 [online]. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ ph_projects/2001/monitoring/fp_monitoring_2001_a6_frep_11_en.pdf [accessed May 16, 2011]. Bhatia, R., L. Farhang, M. Gaydos, K. Gilhuly, B. Harris-Roxas, J. Heller, M. Lee, J. McLaughlin, M. Orenstein, E. Seto, L. St. Pierre, A.L. Tamburrini, A. Wernham, and M. Wier. 2009. Practice Standards for Health Impact Assessment (HIA), Ver- sion 1. North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group, Oakland, CA. April 2009 [online]. Available: http://www.habitatcorp.com/whats_new/HIA_Prac tice_Standards_040709_V1.pdf [accessed May 17, 2011]. Bhatia, R., J. Branscomb, L. Farhang, M. Lee, M. Orenstein, and M. Richardson. 2010. Minimum Elements and Practice Standards for Health Impact Assessment (HIA), Version 2. North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group, Oakland, CA. November 2010 [online]. Available: http://www.sfphes.org/HIA_Tools/HIA_Prac tice_Standards.pdf [accessed May 23, 2011]. Coggins, T., A. Cooke, L. Friedli, J. Nicholls, A. Scott-Samuel, and J. Stansfield. 2008. Mental Well-Being Impact Assessment: A Toolkit, “A Living and Working Docu- ment”. Care Services Improvement Partnership, North West Development Centre [online]. Available: http://www.liv.ac.uk/ihia/IMPACT%20Reports/mwia-toolit1. pdf [accessed May 16, 2011]. EP/Council (European Parliament and Council of the European Union). 2001. Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment. O.J. Eur. Comm. L 197:30-37. Fehr, R. 1999. Environmental health impact assessment: Evaluation of a 10 step model. Epidemiology 10(5):618-625. Fielding, J., and B.L. Cole. 2008. UCLA Training Manual. Health Impact Assessment Clearinghouse Learning and Information Center [online]. Available: http://www. ph.ucla.edu/hs/health-impact/training.htm#uclatraining [accessed May 19, 2011]. Fredsgaard, M.W., B. Cave, and A. Bond. 2009. A Review Package for Health Impact Assessment Reports of Development Projects. Leeds, UK: Ben Cave Associates Ltd [online]. Available: http://www.bcahealth.co.uk/pdf/hia_review_package.pdf . Greenspace Scotland. 2008. Health Impact Assessment of Greenspace: A Guide. Health Scotland, Greenspace Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage and Institute of Occupa- tional Medicine. Stirling: Greenspace Scotland. June 2008 [online]. Available http: //www.greenspacescotland.org.uk/upload/File/Greenspace%20HIA.pdf [accessed May 17, 2011]. Harris, P., B. Harris-Roxas, E. Harris, and L. Kemp. 2007. Health Impact Assessment: A Practical Guide. Sidney, Australia: Centre for Health Equity Training, Research and Evaluation, the University of New South Wales. August 2007 [online]. Avail- able: http://www.hiaconnect.edu.au/files/Health_Impact_Assessment_A_Practical _Guide.pdf [accessed May 9, 2011].

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203 Appendix E ICMM (International Council on Mining and Metals). 2010. Good Practice Guidance on Health Impact Assessment. London, UK: International Council on Mining and Metals [online]. Available: http://www.icmm.com/page/35457/good-practice-guid ance-on-health-impact-assessment [accessed May 16, 2011]. IFC (International Finance Corporation). 2009. Introduction to Health Impact Assess- ment. Washington, DC: World Bank [online]. Available: http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/ sustainability.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/p_HealthImpactAssessment/$FILE/HealthI mpact.pdf [accessed May 5, 2011]. IPIECA/OGP (International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association and International Association of Oil and Gas Producers). 2005. A Guide to Health Impact Assessments in the Oil and Gas Industry. International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, and International Association of Oil and Gas Producers [online]. Available: http://www.hiaconnect.edu.au/files/HIA_in_O G.pdf [accessed May 17, 2011]. Mahoney, M., S. Simpson, E. Harris, R. Aldrich, and J. Stewart-Williams. 2004. Equity Focused Health Impact Assessment Framework. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment (ACHEIA). August 2004 [online]. Avail- able: http://www.hiaconnect.edu.au/files/EFHIA_Framework.pdf [accessed May 17, 2011]. ODPM (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister). 2005. A Practical Guide to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive. Department for Communities and Local Governments [online]. Available: http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/plan ningandbuilding/pdf/practicalguidesea.pdf [accessed June 10, 2011]. Quigley, R., L. den Broeder, P. Furu, A. Bond, B. Cave, and R. Bos. 2006. Health Impact Assessment: International Best Practice Principles. Special Publication Series No. 5. Fargo: International Association for Impact Assessment. September 2006 [online]. Available: http://www.iaia.org/publicdocuments/special-publications/SP5. pdf [accessed May 6, 2011]. Scott-Samuel, A., M. Birley, and K. Ardern. 2001. The Merseyside Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment, 2nd Ed. Liverpool: International Health Impact Assessment Consortium. May 2001 [online]. Available: http://www.hiaconnect.edu.au/files/Me rseyside_Guidelines.pdf [accessed May 18, 2011].