Education, outreach, and capacity building are so often interwoven that it is difficult to determine if a particular activity is one or the other. In this report, the committee considers education to comprise primary and secondary (K-12), undergraduate, and graduate activities in support of scientific ocean drilling; outreach includes all other non-research-related activities. However, much of what is meant by “education and outreach” is also clearly capacity building, because these activities are essential to create an ocean-literate society as well as the next generation of ocean scientists. Although each activity (education, outreach, capacity building) is discussed separately in this chapter, it should be kept in mind that there is considerable overlap among the topics.
The information included in this chapter resulted from conversations with Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) employees and scientists, a white paper drafted by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (COL), and internet searches. The committee was unable to find evidence of assessments or evaluations of the various education, outreach, and capacity-building programs related to ODP and IODP. These programs are of significant value, but evaluations of each of them would enable a better understanding of their impacts on different groups (e.g., K-12, undergraduate and graduate, informal) and would demonstrate the broader impacts of scientific ocean drilling.
RECOMMENDATION: Formal evaluation of education, outreach, and capacity-building activities should be implemented to demonstrate the broader impacts of scientific ocean drilling.
Using scientific ocean drilling as an education tool does not appear to have been seriously considered in the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), although many graduate students went to sea and were involved in related research. There did not appear to be any explicit inclusion of K-12 or undergraduate educational activities despite the very significant contributions that the programs have made to understanding Earth systems (e.g., plate tectonic theory).
The committee found few instances of formal educational activities associated with ODP. During ODP, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions prepared a poster on the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event (Blast from the Past in 1997, in association with the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History1) and CD-ROMs with associated teacher guides (From Mountains to Monsoons in 1997; From Gateways to Glaciation in 2000/20012) for use in K-12 classrooms and in outreach. From Gateways to Glaciation and Blast from the Past were distributed to 25,000 teachers and students3 (Robert Duncan, Oregon State University, personal communication, 2010). ODP also created the Sch-langer Ocean Drilling Fellowships in 1995 (discussed in further detail later in this section). However, ODP science plans, workshop reports, or reviews of scientific accomplishments make very little mention of education (see NRC, 1992; JOI, 1990, 1996, 1997, 2004; Gröschel, 2002). For instance, the ODP Long-Range Plan devotes only one paragraph to education, which is focused on undergraduate and graduate opportunities (JOI, 1996). It is certainly understandable that the scientists involved in planning ODP were focused principally on defining scientific goals for the next phase of scientific ocean drilling, rather than on integrating their
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5 Education, Outreach, and Capacity Building Education, outreach, and capacity building are so often Drilling Project (DSDP), although many graduate students interwoven that it is difﬁcult to determine if a particular went to sea and were involved in related research. There did activity is one or the other. In this report, the committee con- not appear to be any explicit inclusion of K-12 or under- siders education to comprise primary and secondary (K-12), graduate educational activities despite the very signiﬁcant undergraduate, and graduate activities in support of scientiﬁc contributions that the programs have made to understanding ocean drilling; outreach includes all other non-research-relat- Earth systems (e.g., plate tectonic theory). ed activities. However, much of what is meant by “education The committee found few instances of formal edu- and outreach” is also clearly capacity building, because these cational activities associated with ODP. During ODP, the activities are essential to create an ocean-literate society as Joint Oceanographic Institutions prepared a poster on the well as the next generation of ocean scientists. Although each Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event (Blast from the activity (education, outreach, capacity building) is discussed Past in 1997, in association with the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History1) and CD-ROMs with associ- separately in this chapter, it should be kept in mind that there is considerable overlap among the topics. ated teacher guides (From Mountains to Monsoons in 1997; From Gateways to Glaciation in 2000/20012) for use in K-12 The information included in this chapter resulted from conversations with Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and classrooms and in outreach. From Gateways to Glaciation Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) employees and and Blast from the Past were distributed to 25,000 teachers and students3 (Robert Duncan, Oregon State University, scientists, a white paper drafted by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (COL), and internet searches. The committee was personal communication, 2010). ODP also created the Sch- unable to ﬁnd evidence of assessments or evaluations of the langer Ocean Drilling Fellowships in 1995 (discussed in various education, outreach, and capacity-building programs further detail later in this section). However, ODP science related to ODP and IODP. These programs are of signiﬁcant plans, workshop reports, or reviews of scientiﬁc accomplish- value, but evaluations of each of them would enable a bet- ments make very little mention of education (see NRC, 1992; ter understanding of their impacts on different groups (e.g., JOI, 1990, 1996, 1997, 2004; Gröschel, 2002). For instance, K-12, undergraduate and graduate, informal) and would the ODP Long-Range Plan devotes only one paragraph to demonstrate the broader impacts of scientiﬁc ocean drilling. education, which is focused on undergraduate and gradu- ate opportunities (JOI, 1996). It is certainly understandable RECOMMENDATION: Formal evaluation of educa- that the scientists involved in planning ODP were focused tion, outreach, and capacity-building activities should principally on deﬁning scientiﬁc goals for the next phase be implemented to demonstrate the broader impacts of of scientiﬁc ocean drilling, rather than on integrating their scientiﬁc ocean drilling. EDUCATION 1 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/ educators/classroom-activities/grades-5-8/blast-from-the-past/. Using scientiﬁc ocean drilling as an education tool does 2 See http://www-odp.tamu.edu/public/promomat.html. not appear to have been seriously considered in the Deep Sea 3 See http://www-odp.tamu.edu/public/pressrel_html/gateways.html. 55
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56 SCIENTIFIC OCEAN DRILLING efforts with Earth science education for K-12, undergradu- shared their experiences with others by conducting more than ates, or the public. 150 workshops, with more than 3,000 participants from 30 IODP’s Initial Science Plan contained several para- states and 5 countries besides the United States (COL, 2010). graphs on education and outreach, including awareness of ODP and IODP have supported graduate education in promotional activities to reach broader audiences (IODP, scientiﬁc ocean drilling by awarding Schlanger Ocean Drill- ing Fellowships7 and providing berths for students aboard 2001), and IODP developed a more vigorous education initiative than did DSDP or ODP. Current (as of 2011) edu- the JOIDES Resolution. The Schlanger Fellowships are cational activities are coordinated through the COL’s Deep competitive grants that provide a generous stipend, to be used Earth Academy,4 which runs a variety of programs aimed at for activities including tuition, research activities, and travel. K-12, undergraduate, graduate, and informal science educa- Since 1995, ﬁve fellows per year have been selected. Of these tors. COL staff includes a permanent director and assistant fellows, 75 percent have remained in academia (COL, 2010), director for education, as well as a teaching fellow. Since many moving into leadership positions in the scientiﬁc ocean 2004, the JOIDES Resolution has sailed 15 teachers as at- drilling community. This prestigious award has effectively sea educators5 (Leslie Peart, COL, personal communication, contributed to the creation of the next generation of ocean 2010). Given the limited berth space for scientists aboard the scientists and, simultaneously, has enabled signiﬁcant new vessel, allotting one speciﬁcally for an education ofﬁcer is an scientiﬁc achievements. ODP and IODP have also been indication of IODP’s commitment to its education initiatives. very successful at bringing graduate students aboard ship to The Deep Earth Academy has also initiated a range of educa- participate directly in scientiﬁc ocean drilling; 28 percent of tional activities for students (e.g., games and activities, video all ODP cruise participants and 22 percent of all IODP par- clips, “ask a scientist,” careers in oceanography) and teacher ticipants on the JOIDES Resolution have been undergraduate resources for grades K-12 and undergraduate education and graduate students (Brad Clement, IODP-USIO, personal that include learning objectives, national science education communication, 2010). The U.S. Science Support Program’s “Apply to Sail” website8 speciﬁcally mentions graduate standards, ocean literacy principles, classroom activities, and general oceanographic knowledge. Together, these indicate a students, and approximately one-third of the U.S. berths are signiﬁcant, positive shift in the approach to education. reserved for graduate students or postdoctoral fellows. Additionally, since 2009 the expanded communica- tions facilities of the JOIDES Resolution have broadcast OUTREACH video teleconferences between shipboard scientists and schools and museums worldwide. More than 10,000 stu- In the earliest precursor to DSDP, John Steinbeck ﬁred dents, teachers and members of the public have participated the public interest by chronicling the Mohole drilling proj- (COL, 2010). The Deep Earth Academy also hosts booths at ect for Life Magazine (Steinbeck, 1961). However, formal national education conferences (e.g., the National Science outreach attempts have only recently regained signiﬁcance Teachers Association National Conference, a venue widely among the scientiﬁc ocean drilling community. The Deep attended by science teachers) and national geoscience con- Earth Academy presently partners with museums and other ferences (e.g., Geological Society of America, a meeting informal science institutions to initiate special program- that has become increasingly popular for undergraduate ming ranging from exhibits and interactive displays to art educators), where staff distribute educational materials and competitions (COL, 2010). As an example, since 2008 a information about opportunities to become more engaged in model of the Chikyu, three core samples representing differ- scientiﬁc ocean drilling. ent climate histories, and a series of scientiﬁc ocean drilling Although all of these activities are signiﬁcant additions highlights videos have been part of the permanent exhibit in to IODP educational programming, the School of Rock6 the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. The appears to have the greatest potential impact. This workshop, JOIDES Resolution also hosts a variety of outreach activities run either on the JOIDES Resolution (when drilling is not during its port calls in the United States and in other coun- occurring) or at the Texas A&M University core repository, tries. Press conferences alert the local media to the presence allows ~15 teachers each year to learn the scientiﬁc prin- of the ship and the nature of its activities, while ship tours ciples and techniques used to study the Earth system through allow up to 60 people per day to explore the vessel and learn core samples. Since 2005, 75 teachers have participated in more about scientiﬁc ocean drilling (COL, 2010). Speakers the School of Rock and have taken their knowledge and selected from the ship’s current expedition have also given understanding of scientiﬁc ocean drilling, and the research it public lectures while in port. During and after expeditions, enables, back to their schools (COL, 2010). They have also an IODP communications team works with local, national, and international press to inform them of current research. 4 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/. 5 7 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/programs-and-partnerships/usssp/ See http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/ educators/teacher-at-sea/. schlanger-fellowship/. 6 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/ 8 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/programs-and-partnerships/usssp/ educators/school-of-rock/. expedition-participation/apply-to-sail/.
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57 EDUCATION, OUTREACH, AND CAPACITY BUILDING Another essential aspect of IODP’s outreach program ing ~30 participants, are arranged each year around a spe- is the Distinguished Lecturer Series. This program brings ciﬁc scientiﬁc theme related to scientiﬁc ocean drilling. The research results from scientiﬁc ocean drilling to under- program is open to postgraduate students and postdoctoral graduates, graduate students, researchers, educators, and the fellows from all around the world, and ECORD provides broader Earth science community. Six or seven active ocean 10-15 scholarships every year to encourage participation drilling scientists per year are selected as Distinguished of early career scientists. One example of this program is the Urbino Summer School in Paleoclimatology,10 which is Lecturers; each typically gives six research lectures to dif- ferent institutions across the country. The host colleges and co-sponsored by a number of other international programs. universities are selected with preference for those with high One feature of international capacity building includes minority student populations or that have not previously developing the skills and competence of individuals and hosted a Distinguished Lecturer. Since 1991, the program societies in developing countries. Although berthing commit- has provided 640 lecturers to universities, museums, and ments for ODP and IODP member countries preclude most community colleges in all 50 states (Charna Meth, COL, such individuals from actually going to sea, modest efforts personal communication, 2011). The series has served as a have been made to include them in the research enabled by model outreach program for other IODP member countries, scientiﬁc ocean drilling. There is no program in place that inspiring a similar program in Europe. speciﬁcally targets support for students, staff, or faculty from developing countries, although they are able to make use of cores and other data collected by the programs, just as is the CAPACITY BUILDING case for member countries’ researchers. In its report titled Increasing Capacity for Stewardship IODP has also been actively engaged in strengthening of Oceans and Coasts: A Priority for the 21st Century, the diversity initiatives. Since 2004, the scientiﬁc ocean drilling National Research Council (2008) deﬁned capacity building community has partnered with a National Science Foun- as programs designed to: dation program, Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth Systems Science, 11 which • Strengthen the knowledge, abilities, relationships, provides professional development for under-represented and values that enable organizations, groups, and minorities. By 2010, IODP’s U.S. Science Support Program individuals to reach their goals supported 90 minority students in 17 different scientiﬁc • Strengthen the institutions, processes, systems, and ocean drilling-related activities, including scientiﬁc research rules that inﬂuence collective and individual behavior and opportunities to interact with IODP scientists. In 2005, and performance in all related endeavors. IODP’s U.S. Implementing Organization (USIO) created a • Enhance people’s ability to make informed choices fellowship to encourage students at historically black col- and fosters their willingness to play new develop- leges and universities to learn more about career opportuni- ties related to scientiﬁc ocean drilling.12 As of June 2011, mental roles and adapt to new challenges. nine fellowships have been awarded and the program has Although the committee did not ﬁnd speciﬁcally tar- been expanded to include opportunities to sail with a JOIDES geted capacity-building efforts within DSDP and ODP, these Resolution expedition. In July 2011, the Minorities in Sci- entiﬁc Ocean Drilling Fellowship13 was initiated to embrace programs have used approaches that supported the above deﬁnition. Each of the scientiﬁc ocean drilling programs was minority students majoring in Earth sciences and engineering designed so that organizations and individuals were best able beyond those represented by historically black colleges and to reach their goals, requiring strong collective and individual universities. In addition, the IODP-USIO Diversity Intern- ship14 recently began. This 10-12 week program accepts performance. This design resulted in stronger institutions and in the development of scientiﬁc processes and systems neces- full-time and recently graduated minority students from U.S. sary for success. As an example, the need to develop novel universities and colleges who have signiﬁcant interest in the instrumentation and equipment was a signiﬁcant challenge ocean sciences or geosciences. The ﬁrst internship focused that the programs met well. on science communications. A current exemplar of IODP’s capacity building for Approaches to attract minority students into the above a next generation of ocean drilling scientists is found in programs have included advertising via geoscience, engi- the European Consortium for Ocean Drilling Research (ECORD) summer school program9 to “further the education 10 See http://www.urbinossp.it/. of young scientists in marine-related sciences and to train 11 See http://www.msphds.org/. a new generation to participate in scientiﬁc ocean drilling 12 S ee http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/diversity/hbcu-fel- expeditions in the future.” Two to three events, each host- lowship/. 13 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/diversity/minorities-in- scientiﬁc-ocean-drilling-fellowship. 9 14 See http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/diversity/iodp-usio- See http://www.essac.ecord.org/index.php?mod=education&page= summer-school. diversity-internship/.
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58 SCIENTIFIC OCEAN DRILLING neering, education, and communications email distribu- ings. In addition, scientists and awardees have promoted the tion lists, especially those that target faculty members at opportunities associated with these programs and have made minority-serving institutions; professional association recruiting trips to several institutions. These approaches websites, journals, and publications; professional society can signiﬁcantly aid in the recruitment of minorities to the and education conferences and meetings; and targeted mail- geosciences in general as well as to the drilling programs.