efforts with Earth science education for K-12, undergraduates, or the public.
IODP’s Initial Science Plan contained several paragraphs on education and outreach, including awareness of promotional activities to reach broader audiences (IODP, 2001), and IODP developed a more vigorous education initiative than did DSDP or ODP. Current (as of 2011) educational activities are coordinated through the COL’s Deep Earth Academy,4 which runs a variety of programs aimed at K-12, undergraduate, graduate, and informal science educators. COL staff includes a permanent director and assistant director for education, as well as a teaching fellow. Since 2004, the JOIDES Resolution has sailed 15 teachers as at-sea educators5 (Leslie Peart, COL, personal communication, 2010). Given the limited berth space for scientists aboard the vessel, allotting one specifically for an education officer is an indication of IODP’s commitment to its education initiatives. The Deep Earth Academy has also initiated a range of educational activities for students (e.g., games and activities, video clips, “ask a scientist,” careers in oceanography) and teacher resources for grades K-12 and undergraduate education that include learning objectives, national science education standards, ocean literacy principles, classroom activities, and general oceanographic knowledge. Together, these indicate a significant, positive shift in the approach to education.
Additionally, since 2009 the expanded communications facilities of the JOIDES Resolution have broadcast video teleconferences between shipboard scientists and schools and museums worldwide. More than 10,000 students, teachers and members of the public have participated (COL, 2010). The Deep Earth Academy also hosts booths at national education conferences (e.g., the National Science Teachers Association National Conference, a venue widely attended by science teachers) and national geoscience conferences (e.g., Geological Society of America, a meeting that has become increasingly popular for undergraduate educators), where staff distribute educational materials and information about opportunities to become more engaged in scientific ocean drilling.
Although all of these activities are significant additions to IODP educational programming, the School of Rock6 appears to have the greatest potential impact. This workshop, run either on the JOIDES Resolution (when drilling is not occurring) or at the Texas A&M University core repository, allows ~15 teachers each year to learn the scientific principles and techniques used to study the Earth system through core samples. Since 2005, 75 teachers have participated in the School of Rock and have taken their knowledge and understanding of scientific ocean drilling, and the research it enables, back to their schools (COL, 2010). They have also shared their experiences with others by conducting more than 150 workshops, with more than 3,000 participants from 30 states and 5 countries besides the United States (COL, 2010).
ODP and IODP have supported graduate education in scientific ocean drilling by awarding Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowships7 and providing berths for students aboard the JOIDES Resolution. The Schlanger Fellowships are competitive grants that provide a generous stipend, to be used for activities including tuition, research activities, and travel. Since 1995, five fellows per year have been selected. Of these fellows, 75 percent have remained in academia (COL, 2010), many moving into leadership positions in the scientific ocean drilling community. This prestigious award has effectively contributed to the creation of the next generation of ocean scientists and, simultaneously, has enabled significant new scientific achievements. ODP and IODP have also been very successful at bringing graduate students aboard ship to participate directly in scientific ocean drilling; 28 percent of all ODP cruise participants and 22 percent of all IODP participants on the JOIDES Resolution have been undergraduate and graduate students (Brad Clement, IODP-USIO, personal communication, 2010). The U.S. Science Support Program’s “Apply to Sail” website8 specifically mentions graduate students, and approximately one-third of the U.S. berths are reserved for graduate students or postdoctoral fellows.
In the earliest precursor to DSDP, John Steinbeck fired the public interest by chronicling the Mohole drilling project for Life Magazine (Steinbeck, 1961). However, formal outreach attempts have only recently regained significance among the scientific ocean drilling community. The Deep Earth Academy presently partners with museums and other informal science institutions to initiate special programming ranging from exhibits and interactive displays to art competitions (COL, 2010). As an example, since 2008 a model of the Chikyu, three core samples representing different climate histories, and a series of scientific ocean drilling highlights videos have been part of the permanent exhibit in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. The JOIDES Resolution also hosts a variety of outreach activities during its port calls in the United States and in other countries. Press conferences alert the local media to the presence of the ship and the nature of its activities, while ship tours allow up to 60 people per day to explore the vessel and learn more about scientific ocean drilling (COL, 2010). Speakers selected from the ship’s current expedition have also given public lectures while in port. During and after expeditions, an IODP communications team works with local, national, and international press to inform them of current research.