Ocean Drilling


Committee on the Review of the Scientific Accomplishments and Assessment of the Potential for
Future Transformative Discoveries with U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling
Ocean Studies Board
Division on Earth and Life Studies


Washington, D.C.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Scientific Ocean Drilling ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CHALLENGES Committee on the Review of the Scientific Accomplishments and Assessment of the Potential for Future Transformative Discoveries with U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

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T HE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported the National Science Foundation under grant number 1010773. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21901-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21901-9 Cover: Images of the JOIDES Resolution (front) and Chikyu (back left) are courtesy of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). Image of the L/B Kayd (back right) is courtesy of the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling, photograph by C. Cotterill. Global map of drill holes provided by Katerina Petronotis (IODP-U.S. Implementing Organization). Photos of cores provided by Rob McKay, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand (front) and IODP (back). Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR FUTURE TRANSFORMATIVE DISCOVERIES WITH U.S.-SUPPORTED SCIENTIFIC OCEAN DRILLING ROBERT A. DUCE (Co-chair), Texas A&M University, College Station ARTHUR GOLDSTEIN (Co-chair), Bridgewater State University, Massachusetts SUBIR K. BANERJEE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis WILLIAM B. CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts MAGNUS FRIBERG, Swedish Research Council, Stockholm JULIE A. HUBER, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts MICHAEL E. JACKSON, Trimble Navigation, Westminister, Colorado KEITH K. MILLHEIM, Strategic Worldwide LLC, The Woodlands, Texas SAMUEL MUKASA, University of New Hampshire, Durham TIMOTHY NAISH, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand PAUL E. OLSEN, Columbia University, Palisades, New York LORI L. SUMMA, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas ANNE M. TRÉHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis Staff DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer ELIZABETH EIDE, Senior Program Officer JEREMY JUSTICE, Senior Program Assistant (until July 2011) LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant (from August 2011) IAN BROSNAN, Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow (Winter 2010) v

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD DONALD F. BOESCH (Chair), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau JODY W. DEMING, University of Washington, Seattle ROBERT HALLBERG, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and Princeton University, New Jersey DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, DC BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (retired), Port Angeles, Washington ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ANNE M. TRÉHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis PETER L. TYACK, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University, Corvallis JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts OSB Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator LAUREN HARDING, Program Assistant GRAIG MANSFIELD, Financial Associate vi

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Preface Scientific ocean drilling has been at the forefront challenging and rewarding because some of the most excit- of Earth science since it was first envisioned in the late ing science of the times resulted from these programs. In the 1950s. During the intervening 50 plus years, probably second part of the report (Chapter 6), we examine the plans the most productive period in the history of studying for future drilling, which was also stimulating because the Earth, we have seen remarkable progress in understand- potential for future accomplishments is significant. ing the Earth system. New theories emerged that include The committee and its Co-chairs thank the Ocean the discovery of plate tectonics, elucidation of global Studies Board staff for their excellent support throughout climate, the discovery of submarine hot springs and the committee deliberations. In particular we thank Dr. Deborah vent biological communities they support, and the even Glickson, Senior Program Officer, for her outstanding scien- more remarkable realization that there is an extensive tific insights, her willingness to put in long hours at any time subseafloor biota that may well inhabit all of the world’s of the day or night, her constant availability for discussions, oceanic sediments and much of the crystalline crust. The her patience with a group of widely divergent personali- ability to retrieve drill cores from the ocean basins on a ties from around the world, and her constant good humor regular basis has been absolutely integral to all of these and positive attitude. We could not have asked for a better endeavors. Beginning in the late 1960s this work has been partner throughout this more than year-long effort. We thank conducted in a highly organized, coordinated way via a Dr. Susan Roberts, Director of the Ocean Studies Board, for variety of programs that grew increasingly complex and her leadership and insights. We also sincerely appreciate the more international with time. Three different drillships valuable assistance and wise advice given to us on many have been commissioned expressly for scientific study occasions during our meetings and during the preparation of the oceans, and two are still in operation. The com- of this report by Dr. Elizabeth Eide, Senior Program Officer munity has self-organized in such a way as to advance with the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. Mr. Jeremy the most significant drilling projects, which stands as one Justice handled all of our logistical arrangements promptly of the most successful coordination efforts between an and expertly and seemed to anticipate our many needs even international scientific community and national funding before we did. One of us particularly appreciated his ability agencies. to find Dr. Pepper wherever our meetings took place. Our committee’s report looks backward at significant During the committee deliberations we held several scientific accomplishments enabled by scientific ocean conference calls and participated in five meetings at vari- drilling and also looks forward to the next phase of sci- ous locations. These meeting were as follows: Washington, entific ocean drilling. Those two foci comprise the two DC (June 21-23, 2010); College Station, Texas (July 24-28, main parts of the report. In the first part (Chapters 1-5) we 2010); Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (September 6-10, discuss the scientific accomplishments that have resulted 2010); Denver, Colorado (October 28-30, 2010); Boston, from the first three scientific ocean drilling projects, the Massachusetts (June 14-15, 2011). Deep Sea Drilling Project, the Ocean Drilling Program, and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, which span Robert Duce, Committee Co-chair from 1968 to the present. This committee task was both Arthur Goldstein, Committee Co-chair vii

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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants and Kate C. Miller, Dean of the College of Geosciences of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee (Texas A&M University) for hosting a reception for the com- would like to acknowledge the efforts of the individuals mittee and workshop guests; Katerina Petronotis (Integrated who made presentations during committee meetings: Keir Ocean Drilling Program-U.S. Implementing Organization), Becker (University of Miami), Michael Bickle (University of for providing maps for this report; and Kristin Ludwig (for- Cambridge), Robert DeConto (University of Massachusetts, merly of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership) for facilitat- Amherst), David Divins, Robert Gagosian, and Charna Meth ing continuous coordination between the Integrated Ocean (Consortium for Ocean Leadership), David Feary (National Drilling Program and the committee and for arranging the Research Council), and Christina Ravelo (University of committee’s tour of the JOIDES Resolution. California, Santa Cruz). This report has been reviewed in draft form by individu- The committee is also grateful to the individuals who als chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical exper- made presentations and provided white papers for the work- tise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s shop: Keir Becker (University of Miami), Jim Channell Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent (University of Florida), Hans Christian Larsen (Integrated review is to provide candid and critical comments that will Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc.), assist the institution in making its published report as sound Millard Coffin (National Oceanography Centre), Henry Dick as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), Robert Duncan standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the (Oregon State University), Katrina Edwards (University of study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript Southern California), Susan Humphris (Woods Hole Ocean- remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative ographic Institution), Dennis Kent (Rutgers University), process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their Jerry McManus (Columbia University), Kenneth Miller participation in their review of this report: (Rutgers University), Casey Moore (University of Califor- KEIR BECKER, University of Miami, Florida nia, Santa Cruz), Theodore Moore (University of Michi- EDWARD BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of gan), Dick Norris (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Carolyn Ruppel (U.S. Geological Survey), Dale Sawyer Technology, Cambridge BARRY JAY KATZ, Chevron Energy Technology (Rice University), Doug Wilson (University of California, Santa Barbara), and James Zachos (University of California, Group, Houston, Texas PETER KELEMAN, Lamont-Doherty Earth Santa Cruz). The committee also thanks Bradford Clement and Mitch Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New Malone (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program-U.S. Imple- York JOSEPH MEERT, University of Florida, Gainesville menting Organization) for providing background data on the ELDRIDGE MOORES, University of California, previous and current scientific ocean drilling programs and for hosting the committee at the Texas A&M Gulf Coast Core Davis Facility; Jeffrey R. Seemann, Vice-President for Research, ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS KEN NEALSON, University of Southern California, Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked Los Angeles HEDI OBERHÄNSLI, GFZ German Research Centre to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany of this report was overseen by Andrew R. Solow, Woods ANDREW ROBERTS, Australian National University, Hole Oceanographic Institution, appointed by the Divison Canberra WILLIAM RUDDIMAN, University of Virginia, on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was Charlottesville DAVID SCHOLL, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Respon- Park, California sibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents Summary 1 Scientific Accomplishments, 1 Assessment of the 2013-2023 Science Plan, 2 1 Introduction to U.S. Scientific Ocean Drilling 5 History of U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling, 1968-2011, 5 Technical Achievements of U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling, 8 Overarching Conclusions, 9 Report Organization, 9 2 Scientific Accomplishments: Solid Earth Cycles 13 Geomagnetism, 13 Structure, Composition, and Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere, 15 Continental Breakup and Sedimentary Basin Formation, 18 Subduction Zone Processes and the Seismogenic Zone, 21 Large Igneous Provinces, 23 3 Scientific Accomplishments: Fluids, Flow, and Life in the Subseafloor 27 Heat Flow, Fluid Flow, and Geochemistry, 27 Hydrothermal Vent Processes, 31 Subseafloor Biosphere, 32 Gas Hydrates, 35 4 Scientific Accomplishments: Earth’s Climate History 39 Past Warm Climate Extremes and the Greenhouse World, 40 Cenozoic Ice Sheet Evolution and Global Sea Level Change, 44 Orbital Forcing, 46 Abrupt Climate Change, 49 Co-Evolution of Life and the Planet, 52 5 Education, Outreach, and Capacity Building 55 Education, 55 Outreach, 56 Capacity Building, 57 xi

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xii CONTENTS 6 Assessment of Illuminating Earth’s Past, Present, and Future: 59 The International Ocean Discovery Program Science Plan for 2013-2023 Overarching Comments, 60 Theme 1—Climate and Ocean Change, 61 Theme 2—Biosphere Frontiers, 63 Theme 3—Earth Connections, 65 Theme 4—Earth in Motion, 69 References 73 Appendixes A DSDP, ODP, and IODP Legs and Expeditions 85 B Committee and Staff Biographies 93 C Workshop White Papers 97 D Acronym List 145